DECE2 DAY 8 QUIZ-ORSP

IGNOU DAY 8 DECE 2

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DECE2 DAY 8 QUIZ

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9.Recently Bhanu Athaiya passed away. She was India’s first _________.

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10.Recently, Jnanpith recipient Akkitham Achuthan Namboothiri passed away. He was associated with which of the following language?

4 / 10

There are no carbohydrate-digesting enzymes
in the stomach.

5 / 10

Carbohydrate like Fiber is termed as which type of  Carbohydrate

6 / 10

Enzymes present in the small intestine act on
sugars and partially digested starch and ultimately break them up into the simple
basic units i.e. glucose, fructose and galactose.

7 / 10

Carbohydrates are widely distributed in plant foods. They are mainly present
in these foods in the form of three types of compounds called sugars, starches and........

8 / 10

Here amino acids are used in three ways:
a)some of them are used for building of blood proteins;
b) some are retained in the liver and
c) the rest enter the blood circulation as amino acids.

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Carbohydrates like sugars and starches  are which type of  Carbohydrates

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  1. […] Q2. Distinguish between available and non-available carbohydrates.(5 MARK) Q3. Describe the processes of digestion, absorption and utilization of carbohydrates in the body. Ans. Carbohydrates are widely distributed in plant foods. They are mainly present in these foods in the form of three types of compounds called sugars, starches and fiber. All these types of carbohydrates i.e. sugars, starches and fiber can also be classified as available and non-available carbohydrates. Carbohydrates like sugars and starches are digestible in the human digestive tract and hence can be made available to the body for its functioning. These carbohydrates are termed as available carbohydrates. Fiber refers to a number of indigestible carbohydrates like cellulose present in plant foods. cannot be digested in the human digestive tract and ate non-available carbohydrates. Digestion, absorption and utilization: Digestion of carbohydrates involves breakdown of starch and sugars like common table sugar in the diet to their simplest unit namely, glucose. Dietary fiber present in whole grains, vegetables and fruits cannot be digested by human beings because the stomach and intestines do not have the necessary enzymes to do this job. The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth itself. Saliva contains an enzyme which is capable of breaking cooked starch into smaller units. However, the time available for this enzyme to breakdown the starch in the mouth is too short to allow for any significant amount of conversion to take place. The longer one chews the food, the more the digestion of starch. There are no carbohydrate-digesting enzymes in the stomach. Thus the principal site of carbohydrate digestion is the small intestine. The major carbohydrate digesting enzyme present here is secreted by the pancreas. This enzyme is capable of acting on both raw and cooked starch and converts it into smaller units. The next phase of carbohydrate digestion takes place within the cells of the small intestine. Enzymes present in the small intestine act on sugars and partially digested starch and ultimately break them up into the simple basic units i.e. glucose, fructose and galactose. These simple sugar units are taken to various body tissues and cells through the bloodstream and are ultimately converted to glucose. Some amount of glucose remains in the blood as blood sugar and is drawn upon by the cells whenever needed. In the body cells glucose is mainly burnt to release energy. The extra glucose (which is not burnt to release energy) is converted to a substance called glycogen which is subsequently stored in the liver and muscles. Glycogen can be broken down to release glucose whenever needed. But only a limited amount of glucose can be stored in the body as glycogen. Once the limit of glycogen storage is exceeded, the remaining excess glucose is converted into fat and is stored in the body. Q4. List the food sources of proteins and fats. Ans. Food Source of Proteins: Food Sources: Here is the list of some of the rich sources of proteins. The list is vast and includes: milk, milk products (like curd, khoa, paneer), flesh foods (meat, fish, poultry), eggs, nuts and oilseeds (groundnuts, almond, cashew nut, walnut) and pulses (bengal gram, lentils, green gram, rajma, soybean). Among pulses, soybean is particularly rich in protein. If you look at the current prices of foods of animal origin like meat, fish, poultry, you will find that most of these are very costly. The only animal foods which are relatively less expensive (though expensive as compared to plant foods) are milk and eggs. As the protein in foods of animal origin are of good quality, one should try to include small amounts of these foods in the daily diet. Milk is the only animal food used by both vegetarians and non-vegetarians. It contains protein of very good quality. Hence, even a small amount of milk added to a basic Indian diet of dal-roti greatly enhances the protein quality of the whole diet. One should therefore try to include at least a small amount of milk in the daily diet. Non-vegetarians, who cannot afford meat fish and chicken can eat eggs which are cheaper and as nutritious as meat, fish or chicken. Let us now take a look at the foods of plant origin. Pulses, nuts and oilseeds are rich sources of proteins. But these foods are also very expensive. Pulses are the major source of protein in Indian diets. One can try to improve the quality of cereal proteins by combining them with pulses. As mentioned earlier, a small amount of milk, if it can be afforded, will further improve the quality of food protein. Food Source of Fats: Food Sources: Food sources of fats and oils include common fats and oils like ghee, vanaspati, mustard oil, groundnut oil, soya oil, coconut oil. They are almost 100 per cent fat. The presence of fat is also evident in other foodstuffs like milk and milk products (curd. paneer) nuts and oilseeds (almond, groundnut, coconut, mustard seeds), eggs and flesh foods. These are known as fat-rich foods. They have 8 to 50 per cent fat in them. You may be surprised to know that fat is present in very small quantities in almost dl foodstuffs. Even foods like cereals, pulses, fruits have fats in them in minute quantities. These foods contribute a substantial amount of fat to Indian diets by virtue of being consumed In large quantities. Q5. Describe the processes of digestion, absorption and utilization of proteins and fats in the body. Ans. Digestion, absorption and utilization: Dietary proteins chiefly consist of proteins made up of small and large chains of amino acids. Digestion of proteins involves the breakdown of these amino acid chains to their constituent amino acids. Since saliva does not contain any enzyme (which can bring about breakdown of proteins), protein digestion mainly occurs in the stomach and the small intestine. Pepsin, a photolytic enzyme, present in gastric juice breaks down proteins into smaller amino acid chains. But pepsin itself cannot complete the digestion of proteins. Partly broken down proteins from the stomach are released into the small intestine where further digestion takes place in two steps: i) Breakdown of partly digested proteins to smaller amino acid chains: There are several enzymes in the small intestine which act on partly digested proteins and convert them to even smaller amino acid chains; ii) breakdown of amino acid chains to amino acids. Finally other kinds of enzymes act on amino acid chains and convert them to their constituent amino acids. The metabolism of proteins is essentially the metabolism of amino acids as these are the end products of the process of digestion of proteins. After digestion, amino acids are carried by the blood to the liver. Here amino acids are used in three ways: a)some of them are used for building of blood proteins; b) some are retained in the liver and c) the rest enter the blood circulation as amino acids. Some of the amino acids remain in circulation and others are taken up by body tissues for protein synthesis whenever needed. It must be emphasized here that only proteins of good quality are maximally utilized by the body for synthesis of its own proteins. Digestion,Absorption and utilization: In the process of digestion fats are broken down to fatty acids. One of the two enzymes which aids in the digestion of fats is present in gastric juice and the other is poured into the small intestine from the pancreas. For enzyme action, fats need to be dispersed or mixed in water. You know fats are insoluble in water. A secretion from the liver called bile helps in fat digestion by breaking fat into small droplets. These fat droplets are then dispersed in the liquid digestive juice and are easily acted upon by enzymes. Since bile is not present in the stomach, the action of gastric lipase is not very significant. This is the reason why fats are chiefly digested in the small intestine where the pancreatic enzyme breaks them into glycerol and fatty acids aided by the action of bile. The end products of digestion i.e. glycerol and fatty acids present in the intestine move into the intestinal cells. The fatty acids cannot enter intestinal cells as such. Bile salts play an important role in fat absorption by dispersing the fatty acids into small tiny water-soluble units which can easily move into the intestinal cells. Fatty acids and glycerol then get transported from the intestinal cells to blood circulation. They do not travel directly into the bloodstream but first enter the network of vessels (present in the villi of the small intestine) called lymph vessels. Then fatty acids from the lymph vessels enter the heart and from there move into the blood. Blood then carries them either to the adipose tissues where they are stored as concentrated sources of energy or to cells where they are broken down to provide energy (in a similar fashion as glucose and amino acids). Q6. Differentiate between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins Ans. Fat-Soluble Vitamins: Vitamins A, D, E and K are known as the fat-soluble vitamins. These vitamins are, therefore, present in food dissolved in the fat they contain. An interesting fact about fat soluble vitamins is that after being used for specific functions, the excess amount of these vitamins is stored in the body, fat- soluble vitamins would remain dissolved in the fats and would be absorbed only after the fats are digested. Water-Soluble Vitamins: Let us now move on to the water soluble ones. Vitamin C and vitamins of the B-complex group are known as water soluble vitamins owing to their solubility in water. Unlike the fat-soluble vitamins, these vitamins cannot be stored in our body in considerable amounts. The excess amount of these vitamins is instead excreted from the body in the urine. QUIZ TIME START QUIZ […]

  2. […] इन सभी प्रकार के कार्बोहाइड्रेट यानी शर्करा, स्टार्च और फाइबर को भी वर्गीकृत किया जा सकता है उपलब्ध और गैर-उपलब्ध कार्बोहाइड्रेट के रूप में। कार्बोहाइड्रेट जैसे शक्कर और स्टार्च मानव पाचन तंत्र में सुपाच्य होते हैं और इसलिए उन्हें उपलब्ध कराया जा सकता है अपने कामकाज के लिए शरीर को। इन कार्बोहाइड्रेट को उपलब्ध करार दिया जाता है कार्बोहाइड्रेट। फाइबर सेल्यूलोज जैसे कई प्रकार के अपचनीय कार्बोहाइड्रेट को संदर्भित करता है पादप खाद्य पदार्थों में मौजूद हैं। मानव पाचन तंत्र में पच नहीं सकता है और खाया गैर-उपलब्ध कार्बोहाइड्रेट। पाचन, अवशोषण और उपयोग: कार्बोहाइड्रेट में पाचन शामिल है स्टार्च और शक्कर का टूटना आहार में आम टेबल शुगर की तरह उनकी सरलता है इकाई, ग्लूकोज। साबुत अनाज, सब्जियों और फलों में मौजूद आहार फाइबर पेट और आंतों के पास नहीं होने के कारण मनुष्यों द्वारा पचा नहीं जा सकता है इस काम को करने के लिए आवश्यक एंजाइम। कार्बोहाइड्रेट का पाचन मुंह में ही शुरू होता है। लार में एक एंजाइम होता है जो छोटी इकाइयों में पका हुआ स्टार्च तोड़ने में सक्षम है। हालाँकि, समय इस एंजाइम के लिए उपलब्ध मुंह में स्टार्च को तोड़ने के लिए अनुमति देने के लिए बहुत कम है रूपांतरण के किसी भी महत्वपूर्ण राशि के लिए जगह लेने के लिए। लंबे समय तक चबाता है भोजन, स्टार्च का पाचन जितना अधिक होता है। इसमें कार्बोहाइड्रेट-पचाने वाले एंजाइम नहीं होते हैं पेट में। इस प्रकार कार्बोहाइड्रेट पाचन का प्रमुख स्थान छोटा है आंत। यहाँ मौजूद प्रमुख कार्बोहाइड्रेट डाइजेस्ट एंजाइम का स्राव होता है अग्न्याशय। यह एंजाइम कच्चे और पके स्टार्च और दोनों पर अभिनय करने में सक्षम है इसे छोटी इकाइयों में परिवर्तित करता है। कार्बोहाइड्रेट पाचन का अगला चरण होता है छोटी आंत की कोशिकाओं के भीतर। छोटी आंत में मौजूद एंजाइम क्रिया करते हैं शर्करा और आंशिक रूप से पचने वाले स्टार्च और अंततः उन्हें सरल में तोड़ देते हैं बुनियादी इकाइयाँ यानि ग्लूकोज़, फ्रक्टोज़ और गैलेक्टोज़। इन सरल चीनी इकाइयों को शरीर के विभिन्न ऊतकों और कोशिकाओं के माध्यम से ले जाया जाता है रक्तप्रवाह और अंततः ग्लूकोज में परिवर्तित हो जाते हैं। ग्लूकोज की कुछ मात्रा रक्त में शर्करा के रूप में रहता है और जब भी कोशिकाओं द्वारा खींचा जाता है जरूरत है। शरीर की कोशिकाओं में ग्लूकोज मुख्य रूप से ऊर्जा छोड़ने के लिए जलाया जाता है। अतिरिक्त ग्लूकोज (जो ऊर्जा जारी करने के लिए जलाया नहीं जाता है) किसी पदार्थ में परिवर्तित हो जाता है ग्लाइकोजन कहा जाता है जो बाद में यकृत और मांसपेशियों में जमा होता है। ग्लाइकोजन कर सकते हैं जब भी जरूरत हो ग्लूकोज रिलीज करने के लिए टूट जाए। लेकिन केवल सीमित मात्रा में ग्लूकोज को शरीर में ग्लाइकोजन के रूप में संग्रहित किया जा सकता है। एक बार ग्लाइकोजन भंडारण की सीमा है इससे अधिक होने पर, शेष अतिरिक्त ग्लूकोज वसा में परिवर्तित हो जाता है और इसमें जमा हो जाता है तन। Q4। प्रोटीन और वसा के खाद्य स्रोतों की सूची बनाएं। उत्तर:। भोजन के स्रोत प्रोटीन: खाद्य स्रोत: यहाँ कुछ अमीरों की सूची दी गई है प्रोटीन के स्रोत। सूची विशाल है और इसमें शामिल हैं: दूध, दूध उत्पाद (जैसे दही, खोआ, पनीर), मांस खाद्य पदार्थ (मांस, मछली, मुर्गी), अंडे, नट और तिलहन (मूंगफली,) बादाम, काजू, अखरोट) और दालें (चने की दाल, दाल, हरा चना, राजमा, सोयाबीन)। दालों में, सोयाबीन विशेष रूप से प्रोटीन से भरपूर होता है। यदि आप मांस, मछली, मुर्गी जैसे जानवरों की उत्पत्ति के खाद्य पदार्थों की मौजूदा कीमतों को देखते हैं, तो आप पाएंगे कि इनमें से अधिकांश बहुत महंगे हैं। केवल पशु खाद्य पदार्थ जो हैं अपेक्षाकृत कम खर्चीला (हालांकि खाद्य पदार्थों की तुलना में महंगा) दूध और हैं अंडे। चूंकि पशु मूल के खाद्य पदार्थों में प्रोटीन अच्छी गुणवत्ता का है, इसलिए व्यक्ति को कोशिश करनी चाहिए दैनिक आहार में इन खाद्य पदार्थों की छोटी मात्रा शामिल करें। दूध एकमात्र पशु भोजन है शाकाहारी और मांसाहारी दोनों द्वारा उपयोग किया जाता है। इसमें बहुत अच्छा प्रोटीन होता है गुणवत्ता। इसलिए, दाल-रोटी के मूल भारतीय आहार में भी कम मात्रा में दूध मिलाया जाता है पूरे आहार के प्रोटीन की गुणवत्ता को बढ़ाता है। इसलिए कोशिश करनी चाहिए दैनिक आहार में कम से कम दूध शामिल करें। मांसाहारी, जो मांस मछली को बर्दाश्त नहीं कर सकता है और चिकन अंडे खा सकता है जो सस्ता और जैसा है मांस, मछली या चिकन के रूप में पौष्टिक। आइए अब हम पौधे की उत्पत्ति के खाद्य पदार्थों पर एक नज़र डालें। दलहन, मेवे और तिलहन समृद्ध हैं प्रोटीन के स्रोत। लेकिन ये खाद्य पदार्थ बहुत महंगे भी होते हैं। दालें प्रमुख हैं भारतीय आहार में प्रोटीन का स्रोत। कोई अनाज की गुणवत्ता में सुधार करने की कोशिश कर सकता है प्रोटीन को दालों के साथ मिलाकर। जैसा कि पहले उल्लेख किया गया है, की एक छोटी राशि दूध, अगर यह बर्दाश्त किया जा सकता है, तो खाद्य प्रोटीन की गुणवत्ता में और सुधार होगा। वसा के खाद्य स्रोत: खाद्य स्रोत: वसा और तेलों के खाद्य स्रोतों में आम शामिल हैं वसा और तेल जैसे घी, वनस्पती, सरसों का तेल, मूंगफली का तेल, सोया तेल, नारियल तेल। वे लगभग 100 फीसदी मोटे हैं। दूध और दूध उत्पादों जैसे अन्य खाद्य पदार्थों में वसा की उपस्थिति भी स्पष्ट है (दही पनीर) नट और तिलहन (बादाम, मूंगफली, नारियल, सरसों) बीज), अंडे और मांस खाद्य पदार्थ। इन्हें वसा युक्त खाद्य पदार्थों के रूप में जाना जाता है। उनके पास 8 से 50 हैं उनमें प्रतिशत वसा। आपको यह जानकर आश्चर्य हो सकता है कि वसा लगभग बहुत कम मात्रा में मौजूद है dl खाद्य पदार्थों। यहां तक ​​कि अनाज, दाल, फल जैसे खाद्य पदार्थों में भी मिनटों में वसा होती है मात्रा। ये आहार भारतीय आहार में वसा की पर्याप्त मात्रा का योगदान करते हैं बड़ी मात्रा में सेवन किया जा रहा है। क्यू 5। प्रोटीन के पाचन, अवशोषण और उपयोग की प्रक्रियाओं का वर्णन करें और शरीर में वसा। उत्तर:। पाचन, अवशोषण और उपयोग: आहार प्रोटीन मुख्य रूप से मिलकर बनता है प्रोटीन अमीनो एसिड की छोटी और बड़ी श्रृंखलाओं से बना होता है। प्रोटीन का पाचन इन अमीनो एसिड श्रृंखला के टूटने में उनके घटक अमीनो एसिड शामिल हैं। चूंकि लार में कोई एंजाइम नहीं होता है (जो टूटने के बारे में ला सकता है प्रोटीन), प्रोटीन पाचन मुख्य रूप से पेट और छोटी आंत में होता है। गैस्ट्रिक जूस में मौजूद पेप्सिन नामक एक फोटोलिटिक एंजाइम प्रोटीन को तोड़ देता है छोटे अमीनो एसिड चेन। लेकिन पेप्सिन स्वयं के पाचन को पूरा नहीं कर सकता है प्रोटीन। पेट से आंशिक रूप से टूटे हुए प्रोटीन को छोटे में छोड़ा जाता है आंत जहां आगे पाचन दो चरणों में होता है: i) आंशिक रूप से टूटना छोटे अमीनो एसिड श्रृंखलाओं को पचाने वाले प्रोटीन: इसमें कई एंजाइम होते हैं छोटी आंत जो आंशिक रूप से पचने वाले प्रोटीन पर कार्य करती है और उन्हें यहां तक ​​कि परिवर्तित कर देती है छोटे अमीनो एसिड चेन; ii) अमीनो एसिड से अमीनो एसिड चेन का टूटना। अंत में अन्य प्रकार के एंजाइम अमीनो एसिड चेन पर कार्य करते हैं और उन्हें अपने में परिवर्तित करते हैं घटक अमीनो एसिड। प्रोटीन का चयापचय अनिवार्य रूप से अमीनो एसिड का चयापचय होता है क्योंकि ये हैं प्रोटीन के पाचन की प्रक्रिया के अंतिम उत्पाद। पाचन के बाद, अमीनो एसिड रक्त द्वारा यकृत में ले जाया जाता है। यहाँ अमीनो एसिड का उपयोग तीन तरीकों से किया जाता है: क) उनमें से कुछ का उपयोग रक्त प्रोटीन के निर्माण के लिए किया जाता है; ख) कुछ को यकृत में बनाए रखा जाता है और ग) बाकी अमीनो एसिड के रूप में रक्त परिसंचरण में प्रवेश करते हैं। अमीनो के कुछ एसिड प्रचलन में रहता है और अन्य प्रोटीन के लिए शरीर के ऊतकों द्वारा लिया जाता है जब भी जरूरत हो संश्लेषण। यहां इस बात पर जोर दिया जाना चाहिए कि केवल अच्छे प्रोटीन शरीर द्वारा अपने स्वयं के प्रोटीन के संश्लेषण के लिए गुणवत्ता का अधिकतम उपयोग किया जाता है। पाचन, अवशोषण और उपयोग: पाचन की प्रक्रिया में वसा टूट जाती है फैटी एसिड के लिए नीचे। दो एंजाइमों में से एक जो वसा के पाचन में सहायक होता है गैस्ट्रिक जूस में मौजूद और दूसरे को छोटी आंत में डाला जाता है अग्न्याशय। एंजाइम क्रिया के लिए, वसा को पानी में फैलाने या मिश्रित करने की आवश्यकता होती है। तुम्हे पता हैं वसा पानी में अघुलनशील होते हैं। पित्त नामक जिगर से स्राव वसा को पचाने में मदद करता है छोटी बूंदों में वसा को तोड़कर। इन वसा की बूंदों को तब छितराया जाता है तरल पाचन रस और एंजाइमों द्वारा आसानी से कार्य किया जाता है। चूंकि पित्त मौजूद नहीं है पेट में, गैस्ट्रिक लाइपेस की कार्रवाई बहुत महत्वपूर्ण नहीं है। यही कारण है क्यों वसा मुख्य रूप से छोटी आंत में पचती है जहां अग्नाशय एंजाइम पित्त की क्रिया द्वारा उन्हें ग्लिसरॉल और फैटी एसिड में तोड़ देता है। पाचन के अंतिम उत्पाद यानी ग्लिसरॉल और आंत में मौजूद फैटी एसिड आंतों की कोशिकाओं में चले जाते हैं। फैटी एसिड आंतों की कोशिकाओं में प्रवेश नहीं कर सकते हैं। पित्त फैटी एसिड को छोटे में फैलाकर लवण वसा के अवशोषण में महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाता है छोटे पानी में घुलनशील इकाइयां जो आसानी से आंतों की कोशिकाओं में जा सकती हैं। फैटी एसिड और ग्लिसरॉल तब आंतों की कोशिकाओं से रक्त में ले जाया जाता है परिसंचरण। वे सीधे रक्तप्रवाह में नहीं जाते हैं, लेकिन पहले प्रवेश करते हैं वाहिकाओं का नेटवर्क (छोटी आंत के विली में मौजूद) जिसे लसीका वाहिका कहा जाता है। फिर लिम्फ वाहिकाओं से फैटी एसिड दिल में प्रवेश करते हैं और वहां से अंदर जाते हैं रक्त। रक्त फिर उन्हें या तो वसा ऊतकों में ले जाता है जहां वे जमा होते हैं ऊर्जा के केंद्रित स्रोतों या कोशिकाओं को जहां वे प्रदान करने के लिए टूट गए हैं ऊर्जा (ग्लूकोज और अमीनो एसिड के समान फैशन में)। Q6। वसा में घुलनशील और पानी में घुलनशील विटामिन के बीच अंतर उत्तर:। वसा में घुलनशील विटामिन: विटामिन ए, डी, ई और के को वसा में घुलनशील के रूप में जाना जाता है विटामिन। इसलिए, ये विटामिन भोजन में मौजूद वसा में घुल जाते हैं होते हैं। वसा में घुलनशील विटामिन के बारे में एक दिलचस्प तथ्य यह है कि इसका उपयोग करने के बाद किया जाता है विशिष्ट कार्य, इन विटामिनों की अतिरिक्त मात्रा शरीर में जमा होती है, वसा- घुलनशील विटामिन वसा में घुले रहेंगे और केवल अवशोषित होंगे वसा पचने के बाद। पानी में घुलनशील विटामिन: आइए अब हम पानी में घुलनशील पदार्थों पर चलते हैं। विटामिन सी और बी-कॉम्प्लेक्स समूह के विटामिन को पानी में घुलनशील विटामिन के कारण जाना जाता है पानी में उनकी घुलनशीलता। वसा में घुलनशील विटामिन के विपरीत, ये विटामिन नहीं हो सकते हमारे शरीर में काफी मात्रा में संग्रहीत। इन विटामिनों की अधिक मात्रा होती है इसके बजाय मूत्र में शरीर से उत्सर्जित। QUIZ TIME START QUIZ […]

  3. […] Chloride Food sources: Chloride is widely distributed in all plant foods. But the most important source of chloride in our diet is common table salt ‘ie, sodium chloride. Magnesium Sources: Which are the food sources that are rich in magnesium? Magnesium is widely distributed in plant foods. The most concentrated sources of magnesium include nuts (groundnut, cashewnut, walnut, almond), oilseeds (sesame seeds). pulses (rajmah, moth beans, soybean), whole grains (wheat, bajra, jowar). Among sea foods shellfish is particularly rich in magnesium. Other foods which contain appreciable amounts of magnesium include dark green leafy vegetables, peas, lotus stem, fish (salmon, haddock), sea foods (crab, oyster) and meat. Iron Liver is an excellent source. Other organ meats like kidney, spleen also contain substantial amounts of iron. Among the plant foods the list of iron sources includes green leafy vegetables (like’ amaranth leaves, mustard leaves, colocasia leaves, mint leaves), cereals (like whole wheat flour, rice flakes, bajra, ragi, jowar) and pulses (especially the whole ones). Soybean is an example of a pulse containing good amounts of iron. Jaggery is another food that contains fair amounts of iron. We have mentioned several foods which contain substantial amounts of iron. However, we have a paradoxical situation here. There is so much of iron present in food and yet very little gets into the body. lodineThe amount of iodine in most foods is limited and it varies widely depending on the iodine content of sol1 and water. Crops such as vegetables especially those grown in coastal areas where iodine content of the soil is high have substantial amounts of iodine. In hilly areas, however, the iodine content of both the soil and water is low. Hence the crops grown in such areas contain little iodine. The iodine content of animal foods like eggs, dairy products and meat depends, of course, on the iodine content of the food that is part of the animal’s diet. Sea foods like fish, shell fish are among the best sources of iodine. Q10. Describe the concept of a balanced diet. Ans. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories, minerals, vitamins and other nutrientsis adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. If you look at the definition carefully, you would realize that a balanced diet meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. Let us talk about each of these aspects: A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day’s diet. You will study more about RDIs in the subsection  8.3. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. But how do we select these foods? The major aim, as we mentioned earlier is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups -each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. These aspects will be clearer when you read through subsection 8.4.1 which discusses the use of food groups in planning balanced diets. Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. This is because RDIS already include a margin of safety. Planning diets on the basis of RDis would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems, We have so far discussed the major aspects related to balanced diets. As we mentioned earlier balanced diets supply all essential nutrients in amounts enough to meet the nutrient needs. In other words, nutrient supply equals nutrient need. Q11. Explain the concept of recommended dietary intakes classify. Ans. In the previous Section we mentioned that a balanced diet is based on the recommended dietary intakes or RDIs of nutrients laid down for the individual for whom the diet is being planned. Now let us try to understand the concept of RDIs. The Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) is the amount of a nutrient to be actually consumed in order meet the requirements of the body. Recommended dietary intakes are hence based on requirements. Now what do we mean by the term “requirement”? The requirement for a particular nutrient is the minimum amount that needs to be consumed to prevent symptoms of deficiency and to maintain satisfactory levels of the nutrient in the body. In other words, if we take in a nutrient in amounts equal to the requirement, we would prevent deficiency of that nutrient in most healthy people. But to make sure that we do not suffer from disease as well as enjoy a good state of health we need to make sure that we take in extra nutrients over and above the minimum requirement. This is called the safety margin. The safety margin is added on to cover factors like: Variation in requirement from individual to individual, periods of low intake (periods of leanness) nature of diet cooking losses some of these points can be well illustrated with the following example. In experiments conducted with adults it was found that when the intake of vitamin C was 20 malady, vitamin C deficiency or scurvy could be prevented and satisfactory levels of vitamin C could be maintained in the body. Since all the persons studied were able to satisfactorily maintain body vitamin C levels at an intake of 20 mg per day, there was no need to make allowances for individual variation. Now, how is this figure for requirement converted into an intake figure for adults? Vitamin C is easily destroyed on cooking On the average, a figure of 50 per cent cooking losses was considered reasonable. The recommended intake was therefore fixed at double the requirement i.e. 40 mg per day. In addition to the factors already discussed, the nature of the diet has a significant influence on the RDIs fixed for certain specific nutrients. Take protein for example. M.my Indians cannot afford or do not wish to consume animal protein and hence they consume a diet which supplies vegetable protein. Since vegetable protein is utilized to a relatively lower extent more protein needs to be consumed and therefore RDIs increase. Similarly, in the case of iron, the availability of iron to the body depends on the type of food consumed. Absorption of iron from typical Indian diets is low as you learnt in the previous Unit. Therefore more iron needs to be consumed to meet the requirementi.e. the RDI is fixed at a higher level. Q12. Identify the major factors influencing planning of balanced diets. Ans. In the last section we identified the following factors as being of great importance in planning balanced diets: Nutrient needs of the individual Region-specific factors such as characteristic meal patterns, social and religious practices Income Individual preferences Taking care to ensure that the diet supplies essential nutrients in the amounts needed would make the diet nutritionally adequate. This consideration would, of course, apply to individuals from any region or income group. However income and regional factors would play a key role in selection of the specific foods making up the diet. Income in particular would greatly influence the variety of foods included. It would be worthwhile to mention at this point that region specific factors determine both acceptability and availability of foods. You would find a detailed discussion on these factors later in this section. Before we go on to that, let us first talk about meal planning and its relationship to diet planning. As you know, the day’s diet consists of various meals. Once we have planned the total amounts of foods from the three food groups to be included based on RDIS comes the task of deciding on the number and pattern of meals the specific foods to be selected for inclusion in each meal and the dishes which would be prepared using these foods. This exercise can be described as meal planning. Our earlier discussion would have given you an idea of the fact that meal planning is not just an exercise of selecting the right kind of foods to help meet the nutrient needs so that the person finds them affordable and acceptable. It involves preparing/planning attractive and enjoyable meals for all persons. Meals must taste good, smell good. Equally important meals must ‘look good’ to be tasted, to be enjoyed. The art of skillful blending of foods in terms of color, texture and flavor develops and improves with practice. This is our main rationale for planning meals. When we plan a meal we may be talking not just of one person but a group eg a family or a group of preschoolers in a preschool center. The specific aims in planning meals are to fulfill nutritional needs of the group members, taking into account the size and composition of the group plan meals within the family income, or in the case of a preschool center within the budget for the midmorning snack or lunch aid in the proper purchase, preparation and service of food economies on time, labor and fuel provide variety in the diet by making proper selection of foods from within each of the three food groups make meals appealing and palatable by proper selection of food in terms of color, texture and flavor provide nutritious meals taking into account individual preferences Providing a meal that would be enjoyed and accepted by one and all in a family or in any group of individuals is rather difficult. Why? Individual preferences, varied nutrient needs, varied food habits, are a few factors that would influence meal planning for a family. However, as a childcare worker, when you plan a meal for the children in your care, nutrient needs may n& be as varied as food habits and preferences and there may be additional problems of preparing dishes which are compact, easy to make and easy to serve. The crucial aspect to considered then, is how best to plan adequate and satisfying meals, within the socio-cultural, economic, regional and psychological framework of the individuals in the group for whom you are planning a particular meal or snack. Earlier mentioned the need to plan meals so that they are satisfying. This refers to the satiety value of each meal. Satiety value is an important consideration which is linked to portion size. The amounts served and consumed should be filling and the person should not feel hungry too soon. WATCH VIDEO QUIZ TIME START QUIZ […]

  4. […] The process of deposition of minerals in the bones is termed as mineralization of bones. Vitamin D aids the process of mineralization in two ways: (i) by increasing the absorption of calcium and phosphorus and (ii) by helping in the deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones Vitamin E: The main role of vitamin E in our body is the protection it gives to other substances like certain fatty acids, vitamins A and C. It prevents their destruction in the body as well as in foods. Vitamin K: Have you ever observed what happens when you cut your finger? Your finger, of course, starts bleeding, but after a while blood stops oozing out. Why? This is because a clot is formed on the wound and seals it off. Vitamin K plays an important role in clotting of blood and is therefore also termed as the “antibleeding vitamin” (one which prevents uncontrolled bleeding). How does vitamin K help in clotting of blood? It helps in the formation of a protein called prothrombin which, in turn, is essential for blood clotting. QUIZ TIME START QUIZ […]

  5. […] विटामिन ई: हमारे शरीर में विटामिन ई की मुख्य भूमिका वह सुरक्षा है जो वह अन्य को देती है कुछ फैटी एसिड, विटामिन ए और सी जैसे पदार्थ। यह उनके विनाश को रोकता है शरीर के साथ-साथ खाद्य पदार्थों में भी। विटामिन K: क्या आपने कभी देखा है कि जब आप अपनी उंगली काटते हैं तो क्या होता है? तुम्हारी उंगली, ज़ाहिर है, खून बहना शुरू कर देती है, लेकिन थोड़ी देर के बाद रक्त बाहर निकलना बंद हो जाता है। क्यों? यह ऐसा इसलिए है क्योंकि घाव पर एक थक्का बनता है और उसे बंद कर देता है। विटामिन K निभाता है रक्त के थक्के बनाने में महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका और इसलिए इसे “एंटीबेबलिंग” भी कहा जाता है विटामिन “(जो अनियंत्रित रक्तस्राव को रोकता है)। विटामिन K किस प्रकार मदद करता है खून का थक्का बनना? यह प्रोथ्रोम्बिन नामक प्रोटीन के निर्माण में मदद करता है, जो बदले में आवश्यक है रक्त के थक्के के लिए। QUIZ TIME START QUIZ […]

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