DECE3-Solution(CH-1)-IGNOU-DAY 1/2(ENG/HINDI)-ORSP

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DECE3-Solution(CH-1)-IGNOU-DAY 1/2-ORSP

DECE-03

Content

Chapter-1 Theory and Practice in Early Childhood Care and Education
Unit 1  Early Childhood Care and Function in Perspective
Unit 2  Some Theoretical Orientations in Early Childhood Education
Unit 3    Organizations for Children
Chapter-2 Children with Special Needs – 1
Unit 4  Understanding Specialisten
Unit-5 Services for Special Children
Unit-6 Helping Parents to Cople
Chapter-3 Children with Special Needs – 2
Unit-7   Children with Mental Retardation
Unit-8 Children with Physical Disability
Unit-9 Children with Behaviour Difficulties
Unit-10 Children with Visual impairment
Unit-11 Children with Hearing Impairment
Chapter-4 Communicating With Parents and Community
Unit-12 Concept of communication
Unit-13 Some Methods of Communication
Unit-14 Some Strategies in Communication
Unit-15 Some Communication Aids
Unit-16 Some Themes and Messages in ECCE
Chapter-5 Managing Children’s Programmes: Some Perspectives
Unit-17  Basics of Management
Unit-18  Obtaining Funds and formulating a Budget
Unit-19  A Case Study ICDS Programme
Unit-20 A Case Study – Mobile Creches For Working Mothers Children
UNIT 1
EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND EDUCATION IN PERSPECTIVE
पूरी तरह से बच्चे की देखभाल और व्यक्तिगत में शिक्षा
Structure
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Scope of Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)
1.3 Rationale for Early Child Development Interventions
1.4 What Should Be Done ?
1.5 Some ECCE Programmes Outside India
1.6 Let Us Sum Up
1.7 Answers to Check Your Progress Exercise
१.१ परिचय
प्रारंभिक बचपन देखभाल और शिक्षा का 1.2 स्कोप (ECCE)
1.3 प्रारंभिक बाल विकास हस्तक्षेपों के लिए तर्क
1.4 क्या किया जाना चाहिए?
1.5 कुछ ईसीईसी कार्यक्रम भारत के बाहर
१.६ हमें अप करें
1.7 आपकी प्रगति की जाँच करने के लिए उत्तर
1.1INTRODUCTION
Childhood is a state of wonder — a time when the world is fresh and every event is
interesting. Ants crawling on the floor, a cat jumping from the wall, the sound of water
dripping from a tap each of these is a fascination for the young child. The child is
born without fear and with a wide-eyed interest in the people and things around. It
therefore becomes very important that the family nurture the child carefully, helping
her to develop strong emotional bonds with parents and others, to realise her potential
and to be a healthy individual – physically, mentally and socially.
12 Simple Ways to Control Little Ants
95,634 Crawling Stock Photos, Pictures & Royalty-Free Images - iStock
All living species nurture their young ones. But of all living beings, the human infant
has the longest period of dependency on adults, and is most vulnerable to deprivation.
Care is essential for the survival of the infant. The continued affectionate attention of
the caregivers to the child’s needs in the early years is important for the child to thrive
and to grow up into happy adulthood.
The argument for investing in early childhood development has been stated.
convincingly by several people and in different ways. However, we need to refresh our
memories with regard to the tremendous significance of early childhood care and
education (ECCE) for the future of our country,
In this Unit we shall recapitulate the scope and rationale of ECCE, even though you
are familiar with the same, having studied DECE-1 and DECE-2. We will also take a
look at a few examples from other countries of some well-known ECCE programmes.
बचपन आश्चर्य की स्थिति है – एक ऐसा समय जब दुनिया ताजा होती है और हर चीज होती है
दिलचस्प। फर्श पर चींटियाँ, दीवार से कूदती एक बिल्ली, पानी की आवाज़
प्रत्येक नल से टपकना छोटे बच्चे के लिए एक आकर्षण है। बच्चा है
बिना किसी डर के और आसपास के लोगों और चीजों में व्यापक दिलचस्पी के साथ पैदा हुआ। यह
इसलिए यह बहुत महत्वपूर्ण हो जाता है कि परिवार बच्चे की देखभाल, मदद करने में सावधानी बरतें
उसकी क्षमता का एहसास करने के लिए, माता-पिता और अन्य लोगों के साथ मजबूत भावनात्मक बंधन विकसित करना
और एक स्वस्थ व्यक्ति बनने के लिए – शारीरिक, मानसिक और सामाजिक रूप से।
सभी जीवित प्रजातियां अपने युवाओं का पोषण करती हैं। लेकिन सभी जीवित प्राणियों, मानव शिशु
वयस्कों पर निर्भरता की सबसे लंबी अवधि है, और वंचित करने के लिए सबसे कमजोर है।
शिशु के जीवित रहने के लिए देखभाल आवश्यक है। का निरंतर स्नेहपूर्ण ध्यान
शुरुआती वर्षों में बच्चे की जरूरतों के लिए देखभाल करने वाले बच्चे के लिए महत्वपूर्ण है
और खुश वयस्कता में बड़ा होने के लिए।
बचपन के शुरुआती विकास में निवेश करने का तर्क कहा गया है।
कई लोगों द्वारा और अलग-अलग तरीकों से। हालांकि, हमें अपने को तरोताजा करने की जरूरत है
बचपन की देखभाल के जबरदस्त महत्व के संबंध में यादें और
हमारे देश के भविष्य के लिए शिक्षा (ECCE),
इस इकाई में हम ईसीसीई के दायरे और औचित्य को फिर से निर्धारित करेंगे, भले ही आप
DECE-1 और DECE-2 का अध्ययन करने के साथ ही परिचित हैं। हम भी लेंगे
कुछ प्रसिद्ध ईसीईई कार्यक्रमों के अन्य देशों के कुछ उदाहरण देखें।
Objectives
उद्देश्य
After studying this Unit, you should be able to:
• state the scope of ECCE
• discuss the rationale for early child development interventions
• suggest what should be done in the context of ECCE programmes
• enumerate some well-known ECCE programmes outside India
इस इकाई का अध्ययन करने के बाद, आपको निम्नलिखित करने में सक्षम होना चाहिए:
• ईसीसीई के दायरे का वर्णन करें
• प्रारंभिक बाल विकास हस्तक्षेपों के औचित्य पर चर्चा करें
• सुझाव दें कि ECCE कार्यक्रमों के संदर्भ में क्या किया जाना चाहिए
• भारत के बाहर कुछ प्रसिद्ध ईसीसीई कार्यक्रमों की गणना करें
1.2 SCOPE OF EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND
EDUCATION (ECCE)
1.2 साल पहले बच्चों की देखभाल और
शिक्षा (ECCE)
Appreciating the importance of ECCE and underlining its essential thrust and
approach, the National Policy on Education (1986) states the following:
“Recognising the holistic nature of child development, viz., nutrition, health and social,
mental, physical, moral and emotional development, Early Childhood Care and
Education (ECCE) will receive high priority…..’
“Programmes of ECCE will be child-oriented, focused around play and the individuality
of the child. Formal methods and introduction of the 3 R’s will be discouraged at this
stage. The local community will be fully involved in these programmes.’
Child development is concerned not only with what is happening within the child, but
also to the care that the child requires. It is imperative that the basic needs for
protection, food and health care are met. It is equally important to meet the child’s
needs for affection and security, for stimulation and interaction. It is normal and
healthy for the child to learn through exploration and discovery, through playing and
fantasy.
Meeting the health and nutritional needs of the child is of course an essential
prerequisite for optimum development of the child. Fostering a healthy foundation
includes measures like improving maternal hсalth, educating the mother and other
caregivers about the importance of breast feeding, immunisation, supplementary
feeding and growth monitoring, prevention and management of common childhood
illnesses, as also about the nutritional needs of the child at different ages and how
these may be met, regardless of the economic constraints. In addition to catering to
the health and nutritional needs and providing physical care to the child, it is
important to provide stimulation(ଉତ୍ସାହ) as well. Early childhood stimulation attempts to
provide learning opportunities to the child so as to enhance her development.
However, the learning experiences need to be so planned that they are in accordance
with the child’s maturational status: This stimulation should be provided from early
infancy. By and large, stimulation comprises activities that involve a close interaction
between the child and the caregiver. The basis of these activities is a warm, loving
relationship between the child and the caregiver. Thus, an affectionate and aware
caregiver holds the key to the child’s optimum development. It is important that the
trained ECCE worker instils this confidence in individual parents that even if they are
poor illiterate, they can provide stimulation their child, and that it should be
done right from early infancy. They should also be familiarised with how they may do
SO.
Up to three years of age, the stimulation aspect is primarily taken care of by parents
and other family members at home. Subsequently, children start attending preschool
centres. Therefore, not only family members, but also workers in preschool centres (be
it the balwadi, anganwadi, a nursery school or an early childhood education i.e. ECE
centre), who have to be educated regarding how stimulation should be provided to a
young child.
There is research evidence built over a period of time, in a variety of settings from
which the following facts are derived:
• Development and learning occur as children interact with people and objects. A
healthy environment, space, materials and time for play as well as adults who foster
learning and nurture relationships – these are the essentials.
• Children need to be actively involved in order to learn. Opportunities for them to
play and try out things should be provided.
• A holistic approach to the child’s development must be taken. Physical, mental,
socio-emotional aspects being inter-related, anything that happens to the child
affects everything else.
Giving due cognisance to these and similar findings, it is now universally agreed that it
is necessary to have ECCE programmes and that these must be holistic in nature.
Recognizing and catering to the specific developmental needs of younger children,
these programmes will increase the general awareness of the value of a commitment to
children and will enable the community to reach its youngest citizens in a meaningful
way.

ECCE के महत्व की सराहना करना और इसके आवश्यक जोर को रेखांकित करना और
दृष्टिकोण, शिक्षा पर राष्ट्रीय नीति (1986) में कहा गया है:
“बाल विकास की समग्र प्रकृति को पहचानते हुए, पोषण, स्वास्थ्य और सामाजिक,
मानसिक, शारीरिक, नैतिक और भावनात्मक विकास, बचपन की देखभाल और
शिक्षा (ECCE) को उच्च प्राथमिकता मिलेगी …..
“ईसीसीई के कार्यक्रम बच्चे-उन्मुख होंगे, जो खेल और व्यक्तित्व के आसपास केंद्रित होंगे
बच्चे का। औपचारिक तरीके और 3 आर की शुरूआत इस पर हतोत्साहित होगी
मंच। इन कार्यक्रमों में स्थानीय समुदाय पूरी तरह से शामिल होगा। ‘

बाल विकास न केवल बच्चे के भीतर क्या हो रहा है, के साथ संबंध है, लेकिन
बच्चे की आवश्यकता है कि देखभाल के लिए भी। यह जरूरी है कि बुनियादी जरूरतों के लिए
संरक्षण, भोजन और स्वास्थ्य देखभाल की पूर्ति की जाती है। बच्चे से मिलना भी उतना ही जरूरी है
उत्तेजना और सहभागिता के लिए स्नेह और सुरक्षा की आवश्यकता है। यह सामान्य है और
बच्चे को अन्वेषण और खोज के माध्यम से सीखने के लिए, खेल के माध्यम से और
कपोल कल्पित।
बच्चे की स्वास्थ्य और पोषण संबंधी जरूरतों को पूरा करना जरुरी है
बच्चे के इष्टतम विकास के लिए शर्त। स्वस्थ नींव को बढ़ावा देना
इसमें मातृ-शिशु सुधार, मां को शिक्षित करने और अन्य जैसे उपाय शामिल हैं
स्तनपान, टीकाकरण, पूरक के महत्व के बारे में देखभाल करने वाले
फीडिंग और विकास की निगरानी, ​​रोकथाम और आम बचपन का प्रबंधन
अलग-अलग उम्र और कैसे बच्चे की पोषण संबंधी जरूरतों के बारे में भी
इनकी पूर्ति हो सकती है, आर्थिक बाधाओं की परवाह किए बिना। खानपान के अलावा
स्वास्थ्य और पोषण संबंधी जरूरतों और बच्चे को शारीरिक देखभाल प्रदान करना, यह है
उत्तेजना प्रदान करने के लिए महत्वपूर्ण है। बचपन की उत्तेजना के लिए प्रयास करता है
बच्चे को सीखने के अवसर प्रदान करना ताकि उसका विकास बढ़ सके।
हालांकि, सीखने के अनुभवों को इतना नियोजित करने की आवश्यकता है कि वे अनुरूप हों
बच्चे की परिपक्व स्थिति के साथ: यह उत्तेजना जल्दी से प्रदान की जानी चाहिए
प्रारंभिक अवस्था। द्वारा और बड़े, उत्तेजना में ऐसी गतिविधियाँ शामिल होती हैं जिनमें एक करीबी सहभागिता होती है
बच्चे और देखभाल करने वाले के बीच। इन गतिविधियों का आधार एक गर्म, प्यार है
बच्चे और देखभाल करने वाले के बीच संबंध। इस प्रकार, एक स्नेही और जागरूक
देखभाल करने वाला बच्चे के इष्टतम विकास की कुंजी रखता है। यह महत्वपूर्ण है कि
प्रशिक्षित ईसीईसी कार्यकर्ता व्यक्तिगत माता-पिता में यह विश्वास जगाते हैं कि भले ही वे हैं
निरक्षर निरक्षर, वे अपने बच्चे को उत्तेजना प्रदान कर सकते हैं, और यह होना चाहिए
प्रारंभिक शैशवावस्था से ही सही। उन्हें यह भी पता होना चाहिए कि वे कैसे कर सकते हैं
इसलिए।
तीन साल की उम्र तक, उत्तेजना के पहलू को मुख्य रूप से माता-पिता द्वारा ध्यान रखा जाता है
और घर में परिवार के अन्य सदस्य। जाहिर है, बच्चे पूर्वस्कूली में भाग लेने लगते हैं
केंद्र। इसलिए, न केवल परिवार के सदस्य, बल्कि पूर्वस्कूली केंद्रों में कार्यकर्ता (हो
यह बालवाड़ी, आंगनवाड़ी, एक नर्सरी स्कूल या बचपन की शिक्षा यानी ईसीई है
केंद्र), जिन्हें शिक्षित किया जाना चाहिए कि उत्तेजना को कैसे प्रदान किया जाना चाहिए
छोटा बच्चा।
समय-समय पर, विभिन्न प्रकार की सेटिंग्स में से निर्मित अनुसंधान साक्ष्य हैं
निम्नलिखित तथ्य निम्नलिखित हैं:
• बच्चों और लोगों के साथ बातचीत के दौरान विकास और सीखना होता है। ए
स्वस्थ वातावरण, स्थान, सामग्री और खेलने के लिए समय के साथ-साथ वयस्क होने वाले लोग
रिश्तों को सीखना और उनका पोषण करना – ये अनिवार्य हैं।
• बच्चों को सीखने के लिए सक्रिय रूप से शामिल होने की आवश्यकता है। उनके लिए अवसर
खेलते हैं और चीजों को आज़माना चाहिए।
• बच्चे के विकास के लिए एक समग्र दृष्टिकोण लिया जाना चाहिए। शारीरिक, मानसिक,
सामाजिक-भावनात्मक पहलू अंतर-संबंधित, कुछ भी जो बच्चे को होता है
सब कुछ प्रभावित करता है।
इन और समान निष्कर्षों के कारण संज्ञान देते हुए, अब यह सार्वभौमिक रूप से सहमत है कि यह
ईसीसीई कार्यक्रम होना आवश्यक है और यह प्रकृति में समग्र होना चाहिए।
छोटे बच्चों की विशिष्ट विकासात्मक आवश्यकताओं को पहचानना और उन्हें पूरा करना।
इन कार्यक्रमों में प्रतिबद्धता के मूल्य के बारे में सामान्य जागरूकता बढ़ेगी
बच्चे और समुदाय को अपने सबसे युवा नागरिकों तक सार्थक रूप से पहुँचाने में सक्षम बनाएंगे
मार्ग।

1.3 RATIONALE FOR EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMEN
INTERVENTIONS

1.3 केवल बाल विकास के लिए राष्ट्रीय
हस्तक्षेप
. There has been a large amount of scientific research in Child Development, all over
the world, in the last eight decades. The conclusions, arising from a variety of
studies, converge on one clear fact : that in the early years of childhood, intelligence,
personality and social behaviour develop rapidly. As you studied in DECE-1, the
early years of life have been acknowledged as the most crucial for optimum
development of an individual. The first six years of life are critical for development
as the rate of development is most rapid in this period, and consequently, this is the
time when environmental enrichment or deprivation makes its greatest impact.
Since development is proceeding at a very fast rate, unfavourable experiences such
as lack of adequate food, health care, nurturance or stimulation, unhealthy living
conditions and exploitative working conditions hinder development to a
considerable extent. In the same way, favourable conditions foster development.
The effect is long-lasting since the foundation of development in later years is laid at
this age. It must be appreciated that development is not simply the result of
mechanical acts of feeding and physical care, but rather of a feeling of total
well-being that arises from growing up in a healthy atmosphere with love, warmth
and opportunities for learning.
• The significance of the early childhood years is being increasingly acknowledged.
This recognition assumes greater importance with reference to the underprivileged
children in developing countries. The limitations imposed by poverty and its
socio-cultural manifestations lead to multiple deprivations during the critical early
years of life, preventing these children from realising their full potential. Due to
cultural and socio-economic realities and ignorance, families, especially those from
weaker sections, are unable to provide a healthy environment, adequate nutrition
and stimulating opportunities to their children. A large number of women,
particularly from low socio-economic strata, have to spend most of their time in.
earning livelihood. In these circumstances it becomes necessary to have ECCE
programmes as an organized intervention to compensate the deprivations faced by
young children whose mothers work outside the home.
• The evidence is growing that ECCE is the most effective area of intervention and it
can be used to break the “cycle of deprivation”. There have been many early
childhood programmes around the world, and together they have given resounding
support to the positive effects of such programmes on the child’s development. With
reference to the poor, the effects of poverty and deprivation can be compensated by
early intervention. Even if a child is not from a deprived family, the ECCE input can
provide enrichment, helping in healthy cognitive and affective development.
• Children need to be given tender loving care and attention, not just because they will
one day become productive adults, but because they have the right, as children, to
live and to grow to their full potential. In other words, at each stage of the
development span, every person is fully entitled to enjoy human rights. Children
have rights too and the right to develop fully should be universally accepted.
• Many persons argue that they themselves had no access to preschool programmes,
growing up in the care of a loving family, and none the worse for it. What they fail to
tell us is that they had a full time mother at home, in addition one or two other
adults who gave care. What they also ignore is the condition of less privileged
children. Further, even the best of families cannot normally provide the kind of
stimulating play activities and the company of other children, that a preschool is in a
position to provide. There is a great advantage, joy as well, in collective activity,
sharing, learning to wait, enjoying doing things together with others. There are
universal values of harmony with others, compassion for all living things and so on,
which can easily be communicated to the children in the course of the ECCE
programme.
• Sometimes an argument for transmitting good values to children fails because
people consider it too ‘idealistic”. For such people, a more convincing argument is
the economic one. Because of the investment in child development in the early
years, children grow up being productive adults. Adults who are normally their
caregivers can enter the labour market and improve their economic status
considerably. Investment in children’s early care has long term effects on their
future as adults, saving social costs. For instance, children of deprived families who
had quality child care have been found to show fewer instances of delinquency and
drug addiction. In other words, investment in children during the critical period of
the first six years will save the nation a great deal in terms of money and preservation
of the social fabric.
• No nation, whatever its political ideology, today can afford to ignore the
establishment of social justice, human rights and equity. Surprisingly, early
childhood care is a measure of ensuring equity, both socio-economic and gender-
related. The girl child, a lesser citizen in many South Asian cultures, will benefit
from a good early child developmental effort.
• Early childhood care is such an overwhelming need felt by the families that any
attempt to provide it along with other programmes for women, such as income
generating schemes, is bound to be a success. For instance, in rural development
schemes, where women come to upgrade their skills or to work, an added child
development programme strengthens all fronts. Similarly, primary schools, which
attach a section for the under-sixes, find that school attendance of older children,
especially girls, improves while also ensuring that preschool age children are in a
safe and stimulating environment.
• Having nostalgia for our past and overstating the importance of children in our
traditions does not help face the harsh realities of the present. Today, around the
world, family structures have changed. There are very few joint families; nuclear
families tend to be more common. There are also single parent families and a
substantive number of women-headed families. Furthermore, migration constantly
alters the demographic patterns – throwing men into cities, sometimes with and
sometimes without their families. Apart from rural to urban migration, common all
over the world as populations are getting rapidly urbanised, there is regional
migration. More women join the paid labour force, with no provision for child care
at their work places. For many of these reasons, a substantial investment in carly
childhood development programmes is an absolute necessity.
Thus we see that from several points of view such as human rights, moral values, social
equity and economic gains, early childhood development makes for the best
investment. Having accepted the several reasons in favour of ECCE, what are the
Steps to be taken by policy makers? What should be done? In the next Section we will
look into this aspect, taking into consideration some of the important issues involved.
1.4WHAT SHOULD BE DONE ?
• We should reach children and families who are most in need. Al present there are,
in many countries, early childhood education schemes for fee paying children. But
thc real challenge is to identify the children at risk and to plan suitable interventions
for them.
• Given the population of India and the magnitude of poverty, the number of needy
children in the 0-6 year age group is very large indeed. Though the issue of large
scale quantitative expansion of ECCE facilities to reach the maximum number of
these children is important, the issue of quality of ECCE services provided is as
important, particularly in view of the existing limitations of funds and facilities. To
what extent is it possible to reduce the cost of an ECCE programme in order to
reach the largest proportion of the target population while maintaining a good
quality? In this context, experts are of the opinion that when inputs go below a
critical minimum, the effectivity is lost and the programme fails to fulfil its
objectives. Therefore, while quantitative expansion of ECCE programmes is
important, the issue of making these programmes qualitatively effective through
measures such as adequate and appropriate training of personnel and provision of
sufficient and suitable materials and facilities is crucial, and needs attention.
• Even though the families of the at-risk children identified may not have forma!
education, we should not assume that they are ignorant. We should involve them in
deciding what to offer to their children and how to monitor it. In this way, we would
at least be sure that our programmes are culturally sensitive, and therefore can be
sustained within the community.
• It is known that the first two years of a child’s life are very important, and yet many
of our schemes tend not to include them. Among the tasks that need to be doi e is
that of providing holistic care for infants, be the programmes centre based or home
based.
• Convergence of programmes has been a recently articulated objective. Instead of
offering nutrition, health and education as piecemeal services, an attempt should be
made to integrate them. An ECCE programme must be holistic in nature. Further,
to increase its practical viability and success, logical, implementable combinations
can be tried. For instance, child care can be attached as a service to existing income
generating programmes for women.
Persuading parents about the value of flexible, child-centered education should not
be difficult. Yet, there is always a pressure for learning formal skills, which are more
“visible” to parents and teachers. In most of the ECCE programmes in our country,
the education component is either very low or is formal and focusses on the 3 R’s
(reading, writing and arithmetic). More effort is required to emphasise to families
and early childhood workers, the value of play and the use of informal methods of
education for young children. Early childhood education must essentially be
through the play-way method and activity-based approach. Gradually the same
should be integrated into primary schools as well, at least for the first couple of
years, for better quality education and improved retention rates.
• As you have read in Block 7, DECE-1 and would study later in this Block too, there
are several examples of small scale exemplary ECE schemes in the voluntary sector,
but the question of going to scalc remains. Large scale has obvious advantages and
disadvantages. In India, ICDS is a good example of a child care programme
operated by the State on a large scale. However, our insistance should not be on one
model but on a variety and range of schemes which share the basic goal of early
childhood development.
A crucial factor with reference to ECCE programmes pertains to training of
workers. Regardless of the model adopted, the most important input in a
programme for young children is the human resource input. It is the education,
experience, efficiency, attitudes and committment of the workers involved that will
have a major bearing on the success of the programme. This aspect, in turn, is
related to factors like training, supervision and management. Given the
considerable impact thcsc factors have on how successfully a programmc gets
implemented, it is very important to give them due consideration
And finally, the question of finances. There is no denying that in the thinking of the
ordinary person, large investments in weapons, airplancs, bridges, petroleum, and
roads is perfectly legitimate. However, investment in the development of human
beings, especially at the earliest stage of the lite span, is questioned. People want to
know if a preschool programme is cost effective, whether it will yield returns. It is a
comment on our times, that advocacy for the child’s development needs a persistent
and loud voice. One of the outcomes of this course, it is hoped, will be the large
increase in the numbers who will raise their voice on behalf of the child.
1.5 SOME ECCE PROGRAMMES OUTSIDE INDIA
1.5 कुछ ECCE कार्यक्रम भारत के बाहर
While you have read about several ECCE programmes of our country in DECE-1,
examples from other countries of some well known programmes for children are worth
studying, Let’s look at three such programmes.
जबकि आपने DECE-1 में हमारे देश के कई ईसीईसी कार्यक्रमों के बारे में पढ़ा है,
बच्चों के लिए कुछ प्रसिद्ध कार्यक्रमों के अन्य देशों से उदाहरण लायक हैं
अध्ययन, आइए ऐसे तीन कार्यक्रमों को देखें।
• Nepal’s Project Entry Point
The cost of the project is low; it is linked with existing schemes and reflects a creative
response to the needs of the rural poor. Entry Point gives women time to pursue
economic activities, while at the same time organizing collective responsibility for child
care. Women divide themselves into small groups of five or six and on a rotating basis,
each woman takes care of the children for one week, in her own home. All the
mothers receive training and each group has a basic kit of materials. Gradually, other
toys and play materials are added. Since it is a decentralised community programme,
with decisions made by the mothers, it is a successful effort.
Peru’s Programme of Initial Education (PRONOET)
The initiative for this came from a University, whose volunteers planned nutrition
education and cooking mid-morning snacks for children from 3 to 5 years of age. The
areas selected were villages in the highlands, where the IMR was higher than 150.
From these beginnings, a model of non-formal preschool emerged. The Government
extended this model widely. Each Children’s House has about 30 children. Mothers
take turn cooking the morning snack. The preschool teacher, called ‘animator’, is
provided with training, curriculum, materials and periodic supervision. From the rural
areas the scheme has gone to urban children as well. Children attending these
preschool centres were found to be socially and intellectually better prepared to enter
primary school.
This is an excellent example of community participation, with materials and services
being offered voluntarily and all decisions in the hands of the Parents’ Committee.
• Thailand’s Integrated Nutrition and Community Development Programme
Poverty alleviation tends to be the core of many national schemes in the developing
countries. In Thailand a programme to eradicate poverty was combined with
community based primary health care and with nutrition education, supplementation
and growth monitoring. Nutrition education was followed by attention to
interpersonal and psycho-social details, specifically caregiver-child activ ics. These
were respectful of the culture, so that there was no sense of alienation. Video
cassettes were used for the messages and so even the non-literate mothers could learn
them with ease. Health communicators had several roles including as supplement
distributors and video operators. Thus the operational costs were low.
In conclusion, investment in early childhood development is the best investment we
can make for the future. The arguments in favour of doing so have been placed before
you. After you finish the Course, you will be equipped to be a child development
worker. Additionally it is hoped that you will join those who work for advocacy,
influencing policy makers and implementers in your own areas.

• नेपाल का प्रोजेक्ट एंट्री पॉइंट
परियोजना की लागत कम है; यह मौजूदा योजनाओं से जुड़ा हुआ है और एक रचनात्मक को दर्शाता है
ग्रामीण गरीबों की जरूरतों के लिए प्रतिक्रिया। एंट्री प्वाइंट महिलाओं को आगे बढ़ाने का समय देता है
आर्थिक गतिविधियों, जबकि एक ही समय में बच्चे के लिए सामूहिक जिम्मेदारी का आयोजन
ध्यान। महिलाएं खुद को पांच या छह के छोटे समूहों में विभाजित करती हैं और एक घूर्णन के आधार पर,
प्रत्येक महिला अपने घर में, एक सप्ताह तक बच्चों की देखभाल करती है। सब
माताओं को प्रशिक्षण प्राप्त होता है और प्रत्येक समूह के पास सामग्री की एक बुनियादी किट होती है। धीरे-धीरे, अन्य
खिलौने और खेलने की सामग्री को जोड़ा जाता है। चूंकि यह एक विकेन्द्रीकृत सामुदायिक कार्यक्रम है,
माताओं द्वारा लिए गए निर्णयों के साथ, यह एक सफल प्रयास है।
पेरू की प्रारंभिक शिक्षा का कार्यक्रम (PRONOET)
इसके लिए पहल एक विश्वविद्यालय से हुई, जिसके स्वयंसेवकों ने पोषण की योजना बनाई
3 से 5 साल की उम्र के बच्चों के लिए शिक्षा और खाना बनाना मध्य-सुबह का नाश्ता।
चुने गए क्षेत्र हाइलैंड्स के गांव थे, जहां आईएमआर 150 से अधिक था।

इन शुरुआत से, गैर-औपचारिक पूर्वस्कूली का एक मॉडल उभरा। सरकार
इस मॉडल को व्यापक रूप से बढ़ाया। प्रत्येक चिल्ड्रन हाउस में लगभग 30 बच्चे हैं। माताओं
सुबह का नाश्ता पकाने की बारी। पूर्वस्कूली शिक्षक, जिसे ‘एनिमेटर’ कहा जाता है, है
प्रशिक्षण, पाठ्यक्रम, सामग्री और आवधिक पर्यवेक्षण के साथ प्रदान किया गया। ग्रामीण से
इस योजना के तहत शहरी बच्चों के लिए भी योजना बनाई गई है। इनमें भाग लेने वाले बच्चे
पूर्वस्कूली केंद्रों को सामाजिक और बौद्धिक रूप से बेहतर माना जाता था कि वे प्रवेश करने के लिए तैयार हों
प्राथमिक विद्यालय।
यह सामग्री और सेवाओं के साथ सामुदायिक भागीदारी का एक उत्कृष्ट उदाहरण है
माता-पिता की समिति के हाथों में स्वेच्छा से और सभी निर्णय लिए जा रहे हैं।
• थाईलैंड का एकीकृत पोषण और सामुदायिक विकास कार्यक्रम
गरीबी उन्मूलन विकासशील में कई राष्ट्रीय योजनाओं का मूल है
देशों। थाईलैंड में गरीबी उन्मूलन के लिए एक कार्यक्रम बनाया गया था
समुदाय आधारित प्राथमिक स्वास्थ्य देखभाल और पोषण शिक्षा, पूरकता के साथ
और विकास की निगरानी। पोषण शिक्षा पर ध्यान दिया गया था
पारस्परिक और मनो-सामाजिक विवरण, विशेष रूप से देखभाल करने वाले बच्चे की गतिविधि ics। इन
संस्कृति का सम्मान करते थे, ताकि अलगाव की भावना नहीं थी। वीडियो
संदेश के लिए कैसेट का उपयोग किया गया था और यहां तक ​​कि गैर-साक्षर माताएं भी सीख सकती थीं
उन्हें आसानी के साथ। स्वास्थ्य संचारकों की पूरक के रूप में कई भूमिकाएँ थीं
वितरकों और वीडियो ऑपरेटरों। इस प्रकार परिचालन लागत कम थी।

अंत में, बचपन के विकास में निवेश हम सबसे अच्छा निवेश है
भविष्य के लिए बना सकते हैं। ऐसा करने के पक्ष में तर्क पहले रखे गए हैं
आप। पाठ्यक्रम समाप्त करने के बाद, आप एक बाल विकास से लैस होंगे
कार्यकर्ता। इसके अतिरिक्त यह आशा की जाती है कि आप वकालत के लिए काम करने वालों में शामिल होंगे,
अपने स्वयं के क्षेत्रों में नीति निर्माताओं और कार्यान्वयनकर्ताओं को प्रभावित करना।

LET US SUM UP
Early childhood care and education should meet the child’s need for protection, food
and health care, along with the need for affection, security, stimulation and learning
opportunities. Good early childhood care ensures that children will realise their full
development potential and grow into productive adults. Early childhood care and
education has become a very pertinent issue, given the research findings pertaining to
the importance of early childhood years, the fact that effects of poverty and
deprivation can be compensated by early interventions, and given factors like changing
family structure from joint to nuclear families, migration and an increasing number of
women going out of the house to take up jomis. It is essential that every country should
provide good care to its children in the early ages not only for economic reasons, but
also as a matter of social justice and human rights, since every child has a right to be
looked after properly. The programmes of early childhood care and education should
be holistic in nature rather than providing nutrition, health and education services as
piece-meal services. There are a number of these programmes being run in our
country as well as in other developing countries. It is important to learn not only from
one’s own experience, but also from that of the others.

बचपन की देखभाल और शिक्षा को संरक्षण, भोजन के लिए बच्चे की आवश्यकता को पूरा करना चाहिए
और स्वास्थ्य देखभाल, स्नेह, सुरक्षा, उत्तेजना और सीखने की आवश्यकता के साथ
अवसरों। बचपन की अच्छी देखभाल यह सुनिश्चित करती है कि बच्चों को उनके पूर्ण होने का एहसास होगा
विकास क्षमता और उत्पादक वयस्कों में बढ़ती है। बचपन की देखभाल और
शिक्षा एक बहुत ही महत्वपूर्ण मुद्दा बन गया है, जिससे संबंधित शोध निष्कर्ष निकलते हैं
बचपन के वर्षों के महत्व, गरीबी के प्रभाव और
वंचितों को शुरुआती हस्तक्षेप, और दिए गए कारकों जैसे बदलते हुए द्वारा मुआवजा दिया जा सकता है
संयुक्त परिवार से लेकर परमाणु परिवार, प्रवासन और बढ़ती संख्या
घर से बाहर जाने वाली महिलाएं जोमिस लेने जाती हैं। यह आवश्यक है कि प्रत्येक देश को होना चाहिए
न केवल आर्थिक कारणों के लिए, बल्कि शुरुआती उम्र में अपने बच्चों को अच्छी देखभाल प्रदान करें
सामाजिक न्याय और मानवाधिकारों के मामले के रूप में भी, क्योंकि प्रत्येक बच्चे का अधिकार है
ठीक से देखा। बचपन की देखभाल और शिक्षा के कार्यक्रम चाहिए
पोषण, स्वास्थ्य और शिक्षा सेवाएं प्रदान करने के बजाय प्रकृति में समग्र बनें
टुकड़ा-भोजन सेवाएं। इनमें से कई कार्यक्रम हमारे यहां चल रहे हैं
देश के साथ-साथ अन्य विकासशील देशों में भी। इससे न केवल सीखना महत्वपूर्ण है
खुद का अनुभव है, लेकिन दूसरों से भी।

Check Your Progress Exercise 1
1) Fill in the blanks :
i) of all living beings, the human infant has the……………………period(longest)
dependency on adults.
ii) An ECCE programme must be…………………………in nature.(holistic)
ür) In the early years of life…………………proceeds rapidly. (development)
iv) ECCE is an effective area of………………….for preventing the cycle of
deprivation from continuing.(intervention)
अपने प्रगति व्यायाम 1 की जाँच करें
1) रिक्त स्थान भरें:
i) सभी जीवित प्राणियों के, मानव शिशु में …………………… अवधि होती है
वयस्कों पर निर्भरता।
ii) एक ईसीसीई कार्यक्रम प्रकृति में ………………………… होना चाहिए।
ür) जीवन के प्रारंभिक वर्षों में ………………… तेजी से आगे बढ़ता है।
iv) ECCE चक्र को रोकने के लिए …………………. का एक प्रभावी क्षेत्र है
जारी रखने से वंचित।
2) What in your opinion, should be the purpose and approach of ECCE ?
2) आपकी राय में ईसीईसी का उद्देश्य और दृष्टिकोण क्या होना चाहिए?

The aim of Early Childhood Care and Education is to facilitate optimum development of the child’s full potential and lay the foundation for all round development and lifelong learning. While parents and home have the main responsibility of the welfare of the child, a strong partnership between the community and the ECCE centres is important for the well-being of the child and in achieving the following objectives.

Broad objectives of the Early Childhood Care and Education programme are to:

  1. Ensure each child is valued, respected, feels safe and secure and develops a positive self-concept
  2. Enable a sound foundation for physical and motor development of each child- as per each child’s potential
  3. Imbibe good nutrition routines, health habits, hygiene practices and self-help skills
  4. Enable children for effective communication and foster both receptive and expressive language
  5. Promote development and integration of the senses
  6. Stimulate intellectual curiosity and develop conceptual understanding of the world around by
  7. providing opportunities to explore, investigate and experiment
  8. Enhance development of pro-social skills, social competence and emotional well being
  9. Develop sense of aesthetic appreciation and stimulate creative learning processes.
  10. Imbibe culturally and developmentally appropriate behaviour and core human values of respect and love for fellow human beings.
  11. Enable a smooth transition from home to ECCE centre to formal schooling
  12. Enhance scope for overall personality development

बचपन की देखभाल और शिक्षा का उद्देश्य बच्चे की पूर्ण क्षमता के अनुकूलतम विकास को सुविधाजनक बनाना और सर्वांगीण विकास और आजीवन सीखने की नींव रखना है। जबकि माता-पिता और घर में बच्चे के कल्याण की मुख्य जिम्मेदारी होती है, समुदाय और ECCE केंद्रों के बीच एक मजबूत साझेदारी बच्चे की भलाई और निम्नलिखित उद्देश्यों को प्राप्त करने के लिए महत्वपूर्ण होती है।

बचपन देखभाल और शिक्षा कार्यक्रम के व्यापक उद्देश्य निम्नलिखित हैं:

सुनिश्चित करें कि प्रत्येक बच्चे को सम्मान दिया जाता है, सम्मानित किया जाता है, सुरक्षित और सुरक्षित महसूस करता है और एक सकारात्मक आत्म-अवधारणा विकसित करता है
प्रत्येक बच्चे की शारीरिक और मोटर विकास के लिए एक ध्वनि नींव सक्षम करें- प्रत्येक बच्चे की क्षमता के अनुसार
Imbibe अच्छा पोषण दिनचर्या, स्वास्थ्य की आदतें, स्वच्छता प्रथाओं और स्वयं सहायता कौशल
बच्चों को प्रभावी संचार के लिए सक्षम करें और दोनों ग्रहणशील और अभिव्यंजक भाषा को बढ़ावा दें
इंद्रियों के विकास और एकीकरण को बढ़ावा देना
बौद्धिक जिज्ञासा को बढ़ावा दें और आसपास की दुनिया की वैचारिक समझ विकसित करें
अन्वेषण, जांच और प्रयोग करने के अवसर प्रदान करना
प्रो-सोशल स्किल, सामाजिक सक्षमता और भावनात्मक भलाई के विकास को बढ़ाना
सौंदर्य की सराहना की भावना विकसित करना और रचनात्मक सीखने की प्रक्रियाओं को प्रोत्साहित करना।
Imbibe सांस्कृतिक रूप से और विकास के साथ उचित व्यवहार और साथी मानवों के लिए सम्मान और प्यार के मुख्य मानवीय मूल्यों।
घर से ECCE केंद्र तक औपचारिक स्कूली शिक्षा के लिए एक चिकनी संक्रमण सक्षम करें
समग्र व्यक्तित्व विकास की गुंजाइश बढ़ाना

3)State, in your word, the rationale for early child development interventions.
3) राज्य, आपके शब्द में, प्रारंभिक बाल विकास हस्तक्षेप के लिए तर्क।
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4)Dicuss any three important issue involved in delivery of ECCE services.
4) ECCE सेवाओं के वितरण में शामिल किसी भी तीन महत्वपूर्ण मुद्दे को डिसकस करना।
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5)When lesson can learnt from Thailand’s Integrated Nautrition and Community
Development Programme ?
5) जब सबक थाईलैंड के एकीकृत पोषण और समुदाय से सीख सकता है
विकास कार्यक्रम?
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  • Pos.
    Name
    Score
    Duration
    Points
  • 1
    Rasmilata BHAKTA
    100 %
    51 s
    9
  • 2
    Bhabasmita Mohanta
    100 %
    52 s
    9
  • 3
    Damayanti Mahanta
    100 %
    61 s
    9
  • 4
    Archana Das
    100 %
    68 s
    9
  • 5
    Monalisa Mahanta
    100 %
    99 s
    9
  • 6
    Nirupama Mahanta
    100 %
    150 s
    9
  • 7
    Krishna Naik
    81.33 %
    279.5 s
    7.33
  • 8
    Jyotiranjan Mahanta
    66 %
    96 s
    6
  • 9
    Pragnya Dash
    66 %
    191 s
    6
  • 10
    Yogismita Dash
    58.8 %
    75.93 s
    5.33
  • 11
    Suchismita Mahanta
    55 %
    58.5 s
    5
  • 12
    Smaranika Nayak
    51.67 %
    518 s
    4.67
  • 13
    Nirupama Sethi
    49.5 %
    106.25 s
    4.5
  • 14
    Susanti Dalnayak
    49.5 %
    132 s
    4.5
  • 15
    USHARANI MAHANTA
    44 %
    106 s
    4
  • 16
    TAPASWINI NAIK
    44 %
    160 s
    4
  • 17
    Shraddha Khatua
    44 %
    345 s
    4
  • 18
    Tapasini Mahanta
    44 %
    510 s
    4
  • 19
    Jayatri Dash
    44 %
    602 s
    4
  • 20
    Bulu Dharua
    38.5 %
    89.5 s
    3.5
  • 21
    Ranjita Yadav
    36.67 %
    86 s
    3.33
  • 22
    ThomasinopyDO ThomasinopyDO
    36.67 %
    100.33 s
    3.33
  • 23
    Subhasmita Dash
    33 %
    33 s
    3
  • 24
    Sonali Naik
    33 %
    62 s
    3
  • 25
    Mamata Behera
    33 %
    66 s
    3
  • 26
    Jayashree Behera
    33 %
    77 s
    3
  • 27
    Bharti Mahanta
    33 %
    97 s
    3
  • 28
    Dharmendra Das
    33 %
    194 s
    3
  • 29
    Sasmita Jena
    33 %
    602 s
    3
  • 30
    Puspanjali Mohanta
    30.8 %
    62.2 s
    2.8
  • 31
    Jayanta Kumar
    22 %
    50 s
    2
  • 32
    Anita Swain
    22 %
    56.5 s
    2
  • 33
    Rojalin Sahu
    22 %
    102 s
    2
  • 34
    Monalisa Bhuyan
    22 %
    126.5 s
    2
  • 35
    Smrutichhanda Parida
    22 %
    175 s
    2
  • 36
    Gitarani Sahoo
    22 %
    602 s
    2
  • 37
    Girijarani Mohanta
    16.5 %
    69.5 s
    1.5
  • 38
    Sanghamitra Padhi
    11 %
    90 s
    1
  • 39
    Minati Jena
    11 %
    253 s
    1
  • 40
    Ritarani Sahoo
    11 %
    602 s
    1
  • 41
    Mamata Jena
    0 %
    12.5 s
    0
  • 42
    Priscilla Lakra
    0 %
    53 s
    0
  • 43
    Pusplata Prusti
    0 %
    54 s
    0
  • 44
    snehalata Pradhan
    0 %
    2218 s
    0
  • 45
    Anupama Bag
    0 %
    15703 s
    0

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