| DECE3 | Unit 9 | Important Question | IGNOU | ORSP |

| DECE3 | Unit 9 | Important Question | IGNOU | ORSP |



Difficulties in Childhood

Who are the Children with Behaviour Difficulties?

General Causes of Behaviour Difficulties

  •  Developmental Changes as Causes
  • Environmental Factors as Causes

 Types of Behaviour Difficulties

  • Temper Tantrums
  • Enuresis
  • Withdrawn Behaviour
  • Aggressive Behaviour
  • Stealing
  • Hyperactivity
  • Fears and Phobias
  • Autism

Parents Perspective and Guidance to Parents of Children with Difficulties

Check Your Progress Exercise 1

Answer the following questions briefly in the space provided below.
1) What are the basis on which you would say that a certain child has a behaviour

There are two reasons why one would consider that a child has behaviour difficulty
    a) the child shows behaviors that have a negative influence on her own development
    b) the child shows behaviors that interfere with other people’s rights.

1) आप किस आधार पर कहेंगे कि एक निश्चित बच्चे का व्यवहार होता है कठिनाई?

दो कारण हैं कि कोई यह क्यों विचार करेगा कि बच्चे को व्यवहार कठिनाई है
a) बच्चा उन व्यवहारों को दिखाता है जिनका उसके ऊपर नकारात्मक प्रभाव पड़ता है विकास
b) बच्चा उन व्यवहारों को दिखाता है जो अन्य लोगों के अधिकारों में हस्तक्षेप करते हैं।

1) କେଉଁ ଆଧାରରେ ଆପଣ କହିବେ ଯେ ଏକ ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦିଷ୍ଟ ଶିଶୁର ଆଚରଣ ଅଛି | ଅସୁବିଧା?

ଦୁଇଟି କାରଣ ଅଛି ଯେଉଁଥିରେ ଜଣେ ବିଚାର କରିବେ ଯେ ପିଲାଟିର ଆଚରଣରେ ଅସୁବିଧା ଅଛି |
କ) ପିଲା ଏପରି ଆଚରଣ ପ୍ରଦର୍ଶନ କରେ ଯାହା ନିଜ ଉପରେ ନକାରାତ୍ମକ ପ୍ରଭାବ ପକାଇଥାଏ | ବିକାଶ
ଖ) ପିଲା ଏପରି ଆଚରଣ ପ୍ରଦର୍ଶନ କରେ ଯାହା ଅନ୍ୟ ଲୋକଙ୍କ ଅଧିକାରରେ ବାଧା ସୃଷ୍ଟି କରିଥାଏ |

2)What may be some of the causes of behaviour difficulties shown by children?

The causes may be

  •   the child’s own developmental level
  •   damage to the child’s brain
  • child rearing practices in the family
  •  the values held by the family
  • the attitude and values of the community
  •  the behaviour of the educator at the child care centre

बच्चों द्वारा दिखाए गए व्यवहार कठिनाइयों के कुछ कारण क्या हो सकते हैं?

कारण हो सकते हैं

  • बच्चे का अपना विकास स्तर
  • बच्चे के मस्तिष्क को नुकसान
  • परिवार में बच्चे का पालन-पोषण
  • परिवार द्वारा आयोजित मूल्य
  • समुदाय का दृष्टिकोण और मूल्य
  • चाइल्ड केयर सेंटर में शिक्षक का व्यवहार

ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କ ଦ୍ୱାରା ଦେଖାଯାଇଥିବା ଆଚରଣ ଅସୁବିଧାର କେତେକ କାରଣ କ’ଣ ହୋଇପାରେ?

ଏହାର କାରଣ ହୋଇପାରେ |
ଶିଶୁର ନିଜସ୍ୱ ବିକାଶ ସ୍ତର |
ଶିଶୁର ମସ୍ତିଷ୍କର କ୍ଷତି |
ପରିବାରରେ ଶିଶୁ ପ୍ରତିପୋଷଣ |
ପରିବାର ଦ୍ୱାରା ଧାରଣ କରାଯାଇଥିବା ମୂଲ୍ୟଗୁଡିକ |
ସମ୍ପ୍ରଦାୟର ମନୋଭାବ ଏବଂ ମୂଲ୍ୟବୋଧ |
– ଶିଶୁ ଯତ୍ନ କେନ୍ଦ୍ରରେ ଶିକ୍ଷକଙ୍କ ଆଚରଣ |

3) State whether you agree or disagree with the following statements.,

a) If a child shows some unacceptable behaviour some time, we can say that the child is showing a behaviour difficulty. Agree

b) Sometimes when a child is not able to meet with the demands placed on her during different stages of development, it may get reflected as a behaviour difficulty. Agree

c)Brain damage can result in some types of behaviour difficulties. Agree

d) Child rearing practices can be the cause of behaviour difficulties in children. Agree

e)If the child care worker is harsh and uncaring towards children, the child may begin to show unacceptable behaviors, Agree

क) यदि कोई बच्चा कुछ समय के लिए अस्वीकार्य व्यवहार दिखाता है, हम कह सकते हैं कि बच्चा एक व्यवहार कठिनाई दिखा रहा है। इस बात से सहमत

b) कभी-कभी जब बच्चा मांगों के साथ मिलने में सक्षम नहीं होता है विकास के विभिन्न चरणों के दौरान उसे रखा जा सकता है
एक व्यवहार कठिनाई के रूप में परिलक्षित होता है। इस बात से सहमत

ग) मस्तिष्क क्षति से कुछ प्रकार की व्यवहार कठिनाइयों का परिणाम हो सकता है। इस बात से सहमत

d) बाल पालन अभ्यास व्यवहार की कठिनाइयों का कारण हो सकता है च्चों में। इस बात से सहमत

e) यदि बाल देखभाल कर्मी बच्चों के प्रति कठोर और अशक्त है, बच्चा अस्वीकार्य व्यवहार दिखाना शुरू कर सकता है, इस बात से सहमत

କ) ଯଦି କ child ଣସି ଶିଶୁ କିଛି ସମୟ ଗ୍ରହଣୀୟ ଆଚରଣ ଦେଖାଏ, ଆମେ କହିପାରିବା ଯେ ପିଲାଟି ଆଚରଣରେ ଅସୁବିଧା ଦେଖାଉଛି | ସହମତ |

ଖ) ବେଳେବେଳେ ଯେତେବେଳେ ପିଲା ଚାହିଦା ପୂରଣ କରିବାରେ ସକ୍ଷମ ହୁଏ ନାହିଁ | ବିକାଶର ବିଭିନ୍ନ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟରେ ତାଙ୍କ ଉପରେ ରଖାଯାଇଥାଏ, ଏହା ପାଇପାରେ | ଆଚରଣ ଅସୁବିଧା ଭାବରେ ପ୍ରତିଫଳିତ | ସହମତ |

ଗ) ମସ୍ତିଷ୍କର କ୍ଷତି କିଛି ପ୍ରକାରର ଆଚରଣରେ ଅସୁବିଧା ସୃଷ୍ଟି କରିପାରେ | ସହମତ |

ଘ) ଶିଶୁ ପାଳନର ଅଭ୍ୟାସ ଆଚରଣ ଅସୁବିଧାର କାରଣ ହୋଇପାରେ | ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କରେ ସହମତ |

ଇ) ଯଦି ଶିଶୁ ଯତ୍ନ କର୍ମୀ ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କ ପ୍ରତି କଠୋର ଏବଂ ଅବହେଳା କରନ୍ତି, ପିଲାଟି ଗ୍ରହଣଯୋଗ୍ୟ ଆଚରଣ ଦେଖାଇବାକୁ ଆରମ୍ଭ କରିପାରେ, ରାଜି |


Check Your Progress Exercise 2

Answer the following questions briefly in the space provided below.
1)How would you determine whether a particular behaviour shown by a child is problematic and serious?

To guage whether a particular behaviour can be termed as problematic one would need to see its intensity, frequency and duration. One would also need to view it in the context of the child’s developmental level.

2)Imagine that you are an educator at a child care centre. One child at your centre throws a tantrum whenever she wants to get his way. You have called his parents for a discussion at the centre. When you ask them as to how they deal with the child behaviour, they reply: “Oh! when he does something like that, we do as he wants. It is so much simpler to agree to him. At least there is peace after that!”

How would you respond to the parents’ statements?

  • The parents’ way of responding to the child’s tantrum is wrong.
  • This will only reinforce the behaviour and make the tantrum more forceful next time.
  • They should, in fact, ignore the child when he throws a tantrum.
  • Once the child calm down because no one has paid attention to him, he may sit and sulk because he was not attended to.
  • In this case, talk firmly but gently to the child, explaining that what he did was wrong.
  • If the child stops the tantrum and does as the parents wanted, then they should encourage and praise him.

3) A mother of an enuretic child responds to your query saying: “Oh! I do not know how to manage him anymore. I have slapped him so many times for wetting his bed but it makes no difference !”

What will be your response to the mother?

  • The mother’s method of tackling the situation is not likely to help the child.
  •  the bed wetting may increase.
  • Explain to the mother that the child is not wetting the bed deliberately.
  • Perhaps something is making the child tense. If this is the case, then the tension causing factor must be eliminated.
  • But sometimes a happy child may also wet the bed.
  • The child needs to toilet trained.
  • Take the child to the toilet even when she does not wish to go.
  • Gradually teach her to remind herself through actions.
  • When the child has no wetting episode, praise her and reward her.
  • It is possible that the child also needs medical treatment.
  • In all cases, punishing the child for wetting the bed must be avoided.

4) ‘The behaviour and attitude of family members may be responsible for withdrawn behaviour of a child’. Comment upon this statement.

Agree. IF the family and/or the community neglect/ridicules the child, she may respond by withdrawing from interaction with people.

Check Your Progress Exercise 3

Answer the following questions briefly in the space provided below.

1) How do family conditions contribute to aggressive behaviour in the child?

  • The parents’ child-rearing practices and their own behaviour towards others can cause the child to be aggressive.
  • If the parents use punishment to discipline the child, if they react aggressively towards others, the child also learns the same.
  • If parents are inconsistent in disciplining aggressive acts i.e., sometimes punishing the child, sometimes ignoring her , then that too leads to aggression in the child.

2)Rashmi is an educator who works in a child care centre. Five-year-old Raju, in her group of children, often picks up a fight with other children. He is usually the one who starts a fight and over trivial matters. He also begins to hit the children. Whenever Rashmi sees him doing so, she slaps Raju, separates him from others and goes back to whatever she had been doing earlier. When Rashmi hits Raju, he cries for some time, remains quiet for a while and, sometime later, again picks up a fight
with someone, for some reason or other.

Do you think Rashmi is handling Raju in the right way? Give reasons for your answer. If not, what should she do?

  • Rashmi’s way of handling the situation is incorrect.
  • This will only strengthen the child’s aggressive behaviour.
  • Repeated punishment and shaming the child in front of others can also cause the child to have a low self-concept, which may lead to other behaviour difficulties.
  • First of all, Rashmi must stop punishing the child.
  • During the period when the child is not behaving aggressively, she must praise and reward her for her non- aggressive behaviour.
  • When the child shows aggression, she should ignore it.
  • However, if he is hitting others or is harming himself, then that has to be controlled. In this case, hold the child, so that he cannot hit out, till his anger subsides.
  • After that, she should talk and reason with him.
  • Along with this, Rashmi will need to talk with the child’s parents so that they also follow her
    the method in controlling the child’s aggression at home.

3) A worker in the child care centre feels that if a preschooler steals something, the best way to handle her is to scold and shame the child in front of other children. Do you agree with her? Give reasons for your answers.


  • For one thing, the Child does not really understand the meaning of stealing.
  • The child takes way another person’s things because it seems attractive to her.
  • Her conscience is not yet fully developed to understand what she has done .
  • Therefore, one has to be tolerant and sensitive in dealing with a child who has stolen, instead of shaming and scolding her in front of others. In fact, this must never be done.

4)How would you identify a hyperactive child ?

  • A hyperactive child has a low attention span.
  • This means that the child flits from one activity to the other.
  • It seems as if she is acting without thinking.
  • The child is overactive and comes across as clumsy, bossy, noisy and immature.


The following are some suggestions that will help you to deal with the hyperactive child:

  • Give her clear instructions that are simple to understand, whenever she is expected to do something.
  • Be with her when she is doing an activity and remind her to follow the steps one by one.
  • Reward her for every unit of good behaviour – e.g. look at a picture book for 5 minutes. The reward can be a toffee in the beginning, but later it should simply be appreciation.
  •  For punishment, if at all necessary, separate her from others and let her sit facing a blank wall for 2 to 5 minutes.
  • Then call her back and explain why she was punished. Do not ridicule her in front of other children.
  • Be consistent in your own behaviour towards her.

5) What is autism?

  • Autism is a rare condition some children are born with.
  • An autistic child does not feel the need to relate to others, does not make eye contact, does repetitive actions like thumping on the ground, can harm himself and others, knows some language but uses the words and sentences out of context.
  • Autism affects all areas of the child’s development quite seriously.

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