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DECE1-UNIT 8(Important Question)(HIN+ENG)-IGNOU-ORSP

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DECE1-UNIT 8(Important Question)(HIN+ENG)-IGNOU-ORSP



संज्ञानात्मक विकास:
THOUGHT का उद्देश्य

ସଂକେତ ବିକାଶ:
ଚିନ୍ତାଧାରାର ଶକ୍ତି

8.1 Introduction
8.2 What is Cognition
8,3 Thought in the First Year
8.3.1 The Sensori-motor Stage
8.4 The Role of the Caregiver
8.5 Summing Up
8.6 Glossary
8.7 Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises

Describe five behaviour of a 1 year old child which give evidence of the child thinking abilities . discuss how can you can promote cognitive development of children during the first two years of life ?

Behaviour of 1 year old child that gives evidence of child’s thinking abilities

  • Imitation of adults
  • remember games
  • responding on his name
  • recognizing family members
  • follow the instruction of others

imitation of adults

A child also do the same thing which he sees doing others . Achild copy /imitates them

for example if someone dancing he also starts dancing

responding on his name

A child respond  on his name whenever somebody call his name,  he starts looking here and there,  which means he recognizes his name.

for example if child name is  “Jasmine ” and you will say Jasmine .  the child will start looking here and there and  search who is calling.

Recognise family members

a child recognise familiar faces which means he remember his family members and develop a sense of attachment to them.

for example a child cries  in the hand of any stranger but does not cry in the hand of his mother

remember games ( basic rules of kids play)

a child remember games like hide and seek , one for you one for me .

for example in hide and seek child will search for you in every corner on while hiding himself  behind any large object

follow the instruction of others

A is child follow the instruction given to him by others which gives evidence of his thinking abilities

for example if you tell a child to go to the Papa (father). he will go to his father

Technique to promote cognitive development of Children by Caregiver

  • play with your child
  • let him explore the things
  • reading for your child from picture books
  • provide opportunity to think
  • provide puzzle games

play with your child

a child learna lot while  playing . learning the rules of game and understand how to respond will help in the cognitive development of the child

let him explore the thing

leave the child freely and let him explore the things himself (as suggested by Jean Piaget)

read from picture books

Caregivers can read from picture books to the child for cognitive development as child will remember and  reassemble the thing seen in the picture to real life object.

provide opportunity to thing to think

as a caregiver should provide opportunity through various situation to thing by child himself . the more child will try to use his mind, the more his cognitive development will be .

provided puzzle games

give your child puzzle games like zigsow puzzle, where the child will do or try multiple way to solve the puzzle .


A child learns from his own experience. she/he should be encouraged to  actively participate and explore the thing for cognitive development ( based on theory of cognitive development by Jean Piaget).

Check Your Progress Exercise 1

Answer the following questions briefly in the space provided below.
1) From your observation of an infant, write an anecdote which illustrates any
one cognitive process.

Infants’ and toddlers’ thinking skills grow as they interact with the world and people around them. As you learned in the first lesson, early experiences matter. Consistent, nurturing experiences help infants and toddlers make sense of the world. Those experiences literally build brain architecture. As infants and toddlers develop, they begin to understand and predict how things work: they open and close a cabinet door over and over, they fill and dump a cup of water in the water table, they bang a spoon on a high chair to hear the sound.

1) एक शिशु के आपके अवलोकन से, एक किस्सा लिखिए जो किसी को दिखाता है
एक संज्ञानात्मक प्रक्रिया।

शिशुओं और बच्चों के सोचने का कौशल बढ़ता है क्योंकि वे दुनिया और उनके आसपास के लोगों के साथ बातचीत करते हैं। जैसा कि आपने पहले पाठ में सीखा, शुरुआती अनुभव मायने रखता है। लगातार, पोषण संबंधी अनुभव शिशुओं और बच्चों को दुनिया बनाने में मदद करते हैं। वे अनुभव शाब्दिक रूप से मस्तिष्क वास्तुकला का निर्माण करते हैं। जैसा कि शिशुओं और बच्चों का विकास होता है, वे समझने लगते हैं और भविष्यवाणी करते हैं कि चीजें कैसे काम करती हैं: वे एक कैबिनेट के दरवाजे को बार-बार खोलते और बंद करते हैं, वे पानी की मेज में एक कप पानी भरते हैं और डंप करते हैं, वे सुनने के लिए एक उच्च कुर्सी पर एक चम्मच धमाका करते हैं। आवाज।

1) ଏକ ଶିଶୁ ଉପରେ ଆପଣଙ୍କର ପର୍ଯ୍ୟବେକ୍ଷଣରୁ, ଏକ ଉପନ୍ୟାସ ଲେଖନ୍ତୁ ଯାହାକି ଯେକ illustr ଣସି ବର୍ଣ୍ଣନା କରେ |
ଗୋଟିଏ ଜ୍ଞାନ ପ୍ରକ୍ରିୟା |

ଶିଶୁ ଏବଂ ଛୋଟ ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କର ଚିନ୍ତାଧାରା ବ grow ିଥାଏ ଯେତେବେଳେ ସେମାନେ ଦୁନିଆ ଏବଂ ସେମାନଙ୍କ ଆଖପାଖ ଲୋକଙ୍କ ସହିତ କଥାବାର୍ତ୍ତା କରନ୍ତି | ଯେହେତୁ ଆପଣ ପ୍ରଥମ ପାଠ୍ୟରେ ଶିଖିଛନ୍ତି, ପ୍ରାରମ୍ଭିକ ଅନୁଭୂତିଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଗୁରୁତ୍ୱପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ | କ୍ରମାଗତ, ଲାଳନପାଳନ ଅଭିଜ୍ଞତା ଶିଶୁ ଏବଂ ଛୋଟ ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କୁ ବିଶ୍ sense ର ଅର୍ଥ ପ୍ରଦାନ କରିବାରେ ସାହାଯ୍ୟ କରେ | ସେହି ଅନୁଭୂତିଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଅକ୍ଷରେ ମସ୍ତିଷ୍କ ସ୍ଥାପତ୍ୟ ନିର୍ମାଣ କରେ | ଯେହେତୁ ଶିଶୁ ଏବଂ ଛୋଟ ପିଲାମାନେ ବିକାଶ କରନ୍ତି, ସେମାନେ ବୁ understand ିବା ଏବଂ ଜିନିଷଗୁଡିକ କିପରି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରେ ତାହା ପୂର୍ବାନୁମାନ କରିବା ଆରମ୍ଭ କରନ୍ତି: ସେମାନେ ବାରମ୍ବାର କ୍ୟାବିନେଟ୍ କବାଟ ଖୋଲନ୍ତି ଏବଂ ବନ୍ଦ କରନ୍ତି, ସେମାନେ ପାଣି ଟେବୁଲରେ ଏକ କପ୍ ପାଣି ଭର୍ତ୍ତି କରି ପକାନ୍ତି, ସେମାନେ ଶୁଣିବାକୁ ଏକ ଉଚ୍ଚ ଚ chair କିରେ ଏକ ଚାମଚ ବାଜିଲେ | ଶବ୍ଦ

2) What do you understand by the term “Cognition”?

Cognition deals with the development of thought. It is concerned with how
children and adults understand the world around them.
3) Read the following statements carefully. Each of the statements stands for one
aspect of cognition. Write in the space provided below each statement, the
cognitive process it describes.
a) Representing an event, object, action, quality or concept by something else –symbolizing
b) A set of characteristics that are common to a group of objects, actions, or
thoughts; ways of organizing information. — concepts
c) Storing information and recalling it when necessary.—memory

2) “अनुभूति” शब्द से आप क्या समझते हैं?

अनुभूति विचार के विकास से संबंधित है। यह कैसे के साथ संबंध है
बच्चे और वयस्क अपने आसपास की दुनिया को समझते हैं।
3) निम्नलिखित कथनों को ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़ें। प्रत्येक कथन एक के लिए खड़ा है
अनुभूति का पहलू। प्रत्येक विवरण के नीचे दिए गए स्थान में लिखें,
संज्ञानात्मक प्रक्रिया इसका वर्णन करती है।
क) किसी घटना, वस्तु, क्रिया, गुणवत्ता या अवधारणा को किसी और चीज से दर्शाते हुए -symbolizing
बी) विशेषताओं का एक समूह जो वस्तुओं, कार्यों, या के एक समूह के लिए आम है
विचार; जानकारी के आयोजन के तरीके। – अवधारणाओं
ग) जानकारी संग्रहीत करना और आवश्यक होने पर वापस बुलाना ।— स्मृति

2) “ଜ୍ଞାନ” ଶବ୍ଦ ଦ୍ୱାରା ତୁମେ କ’ଣ ବୁ? ୁଛ?

ଜ୍ଞାନ ଚିନ୍ତାଧାରାର ବିକାଶ ସହିତ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରେ | ଏହା କିପରି ଚିନ୍ତିତ |
ପିଲା ଏବଂ ବୟସ୍କମାନେ ସେମାନଙ୍କ ଚାରିପାଖରେ ଥିବା ଜଗତକୁ ବୁ understand ନ୍ତି |
3) ନିମ୍ନଲିଖିତ ବିବୃତ୍ତିକୁ ଭଲଭାବେ ପ Read ଼ନ୍ତୁ | ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ଷ୍ଟେଟମେଣ୍ଟ ଗୋଟିଏ ପାଇଁ ଛିଡା ହୋଇଛି |
ଜ୍ଞାନର ଦିଗ | ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ଷ୍ଟେଟମେଣ୍ଟ ତଳେ ଦିଆଯାଇଥିବା ସ୍ପେସରେ ଲେଖନ୍ତୁ ,।
ଏହା ବର୍ଣ୍ଣନା କରୁଥିବା ଜ୍ଞାନଗତ ପ୍ରକ୍ରିୟା |
କ) ଅନ୍ୟ ଏକ ଜିନିଷ ଦ୍ୱାରା ଏକ ଇଭେଣ୍ଟ, ବସ୍ତୁ, କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ, ଗୁଣ କିମ୍ବା ଧାରଣାକୁ ପ୍ରତିନିଧିତ୍ୱ କରିବା |
ଖ) ବ characteristics ଶିଷ୍ଟ୍ୟଗୁଡିକର ଏକ ସେଟ୍ ଯାହା ବସ୍ତୁ, କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ, କିମ୍ବା ଏକ ଗୋଷ୍ଠୀ ପାଇଁ ସାଧାରଣ ଅଟେ |
ଚିନ୍ତାଧାରା; ସୂଚନା ସଂଗଠନର ଉପାୟ | – ଧାରଣା
ଗ) ସୂଚନା ସଂରକ୍ଷଣ କରିବା ଏବଂ ଆବଶ୍ୟକ ସମୟରେ ଏହାକୁ ମନେରଖିବା .— ସ୍ମୃତି

Check Your Progress Exercise 2

Answer the following questions briefly in the space provided below.
1) Describe the salient characteristics of each of the four substages of the
sensori-motor period.

a) First substage

The newborn adapts to the surroundings through her reflexes. While doing
so, she learns through generalization and discrimination.
b)Second substage

The infant explores the surroundings visually. Her memory grows as
indicated by her being able to differentiate familiar from unfamiliar
people. She is also able to anticipate events. She is able to imitate some
behaviours of people.
c) Third substage

The infant performs actions that produce interesting results on objects.
Her actions become purposeful and intentional and she understands cause
and effect relationships.
d) Fourth substage

The child is able to use her actions in new situations to reach a goal. This
means that the child is able to handle more situations. She also
understands that objects occupy some position in space. The child’s
memory also grows so that she remembers more events and recalls them
quite clearly.

2) With reference to cognitive development, what is the child able to do by the
first year?

By the end of the first year, the child understands that her actions can have an
effect on the things i.e. becomes aware of cause and effect relationships, plans
her actions to achieve a goal; is able to handle simple situations; discriminates
among people and objects; recognizes familiar people; begins to acquire
language and understands the meaning of commonly used words; imitates
actions and behaviors of others; realizes that objects occupy some position in

1) के चार विकल्पों में से प्रत्येक की मुख्य विशेषताओं का वर्णन करें
सेंसोरी-मोटर अवधि।

ए) पहला विकल्प

नवजात शिशु अपनी सजगता के माध्यम से आसपास के वातावरण में प्रवेश करता है। करते हुए
इसलिए, वह सामान्यीकरण और भेदभाव के माध्यम से सीखती है।
बी) दूसरा विकल्प

शिशु आसपास के वातावरण की पड़ताल करता है। उसकी याददाश्त बढ़ती है
उसे अपरिचित से परिचित होने में सक्षम होने का संकेत दिया
लोग। वह घटनाओं का पूर्वानुमान लगाने में भी सक्षम है। वह कुछ नकल करने में सक्षम है
लोगों का व्यवहार।
ग) तीसरा विकल्प

शिशु ऐसी क्रियाएं करता है जो वस्तुओं पर दिलचस्प परिणाम उत्पन्न करते हैं।
उसके कार्य उद्देश्यपूर्ण और जानबूझकर हो जाते हैं और वह कारण समझती है
और रिश्तों को प्रभावित करते हैं।
d) चौथा विकल्प

बच्चा एक लक्ष्य तक पहुंचने के लिए नई परिस्थितियों में अपने कार्यों का उपयोग करने में सक्षम है। यह
इसका मतलब है कि बच्चा अधिक परिस्थितियों को संभालने में सक्षम है। वह भी
यह समझता है कि अंतरिक्ष में वस्तुओं का कोई स्थान है। बच्चे का
स्मृति भी बढ़ती है ताकि वह अधिक घटनाओं को याद करे और उन्हें याद करे
काफी स्पष्ट रूप से।

2) संज्ञानात्मक विकास के संदर्भ में, बच्चा क्या करने में सक्षम है
पहला साल?

पहले वर्ष के अंत तक, बच्चा समझता है कि उसके कार्यों में ए हो सकता है
चीजों पर प्रभाव यानी कारण और प्रभाव संबंधों, योजनाओं के बारे में पता चलता है
एक लक्ष्य को प्राप्त करने के लिए उसके कार्यों; सरल स्थितियों को संभालने में सक्षम है; भेदभाव
लोगों और वस्तुओं के बीच; परिचित लोगों को पहचानता है; हासिल करना शुरू करता है
भाषा और आमतौर पर इस्तेमाल किए जाने वाले शब्दों के अर्थ को समझता है; नकल
दूसरों के कार्य और व्यवहार; यह महसूस करता है कि वस्तुओं में कुछ स्थान है

1) ଚାରୋଟି ସବଷ୍ଟେଜ୍ ର ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକର ମୁଖ୍ୟ ଗୁଣ ବର୍ଣ୍ଣନା କର |
ସେନସୋରୀ-ମୋଟର ଅବଧି |

କ) ପ୍ରଥମ ସବଷ୍ଟେଜ୍ |

ନବଜାତ ଶିଶୁ ତା’ର ପ୍ରତିଫଳନ ମାଧ୍ୟମରେ ପରିବେଶ ସହିତ ଖାପ ଖାଇଥାଏ | କରିବାବେଳେ
ତେଣୁ, ସେ ସାଧାରଣକରଣ ଏବଂ ଭେଦଭାବ ମାଧ୍ୟମରେ ଶିଖନ୍ତି |
ଖ) ଦ୍ୱିତୀୟ ସବଷ୍ଟେଜ୍ |

ଶିଶୁଟି ଆଖପାଖର ଦୃଶ୍ୟକୁ ଅନୁସନ୍ଧାନ କରେ | ତା’ର ସ୍ମୃତି ଯେପରି ବ ows େ |
ଅପରିଚିତରୁ ପରିଚିତଙ୍କୁ ଭିନ୍ନ କରିବାରେ ସକ୍ଷମ ହେବା ଦ୍ୱାରା ସୂଚିତ |
ଲୋକମାନେ ସେ ମଧ୍ୟ ଘଟଣାଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଅନୁମାନ କରିବାରେ ସକ୍ଷମ ଅଟନ୍ତି | ସେ କିଛି ଅନୁକରଣ କରିବାକୁ ସକ୍ଷମ ଅଟନ୍ତି |
ଲୋକଙ୍କ ଆଚରଣ
ଗ) ତୃତୀୟ ସବଷ୍ଟେଜ୍ |

ଶିଶୁ ଏପରି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରିଥାଏ ଯାହାକି ବସ୍ତୁ ଉପରେ ଆକର୍ଷଣୀୟ ଫଳାଫଳ ସୃଷ୍ଟି କରିଥାଏ |
ତାଙ୍କର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟମୂଳକ ଏବଂ ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟମୂଳକ ହୋଇଯାଏ ଏବଂ ସେ କାରଣ ବୁ understand ନ୍ତି |
ଏବଂ ପ୍ରଭାବ ସମ୍ପର୍କଗୁଡିକ |
ଘ) ଚତୁର୍ଥ ସବଷ୍ଟେଜ୍ |

ପିଲା ଏକ ଲକ୍ଷ୍ୟରେ ପହଞ୍ଚିବା ପାଇଁ ନୂତନ ପରିସ୍ଥିତିରେ ନିଜର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକଳାପକୁ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରିବାରେ ସକ୍ଷମ ହୁଏ | ଏହା
ଏହାର ଅର୍ଥ ହେଉଛି ପିଲା ଅଧିକ ପରିସ୍ଥିତିକୁ ନିୟନ୍ତ୍ରଣ କରିବାକୁ ସକ୍ଷମ | ସେ ମଧ୍ୟ
ବୁ understand ିଥାଏ ଯେ ବସ୍ତୁଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଜାଗାରେ କିଛି ସ୍ଥାନ ଦଖଲ କରେ | ପିଲାଟିର
ସ୍ମୃତି ମଧ୍ୟ ବ ows େ ଯାହା ଦ୍ she ାରା ସେ ଅଧିକ ଘଟଣା ମନେ କରନ୍ତି ଏବଂ ସେଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ମନେ ପକାନ୍ତି |
ବହୁତ ସ୍ପଷ୍ଟ ଭାବରେ |

)) ଜ୍ ogn ାନକ development ଶଳ ବିକାଶ ସମ୍ବନ୍ଧରେ, ପିଲାଟି ଦ୍ୱାରା କ’ଣ କରିବାକୁ ସମର୍ଥ |
ପ୍ରଥମ ବର୍ଷ?

ପ୍ରଥମ ବର୍ଷ ଶେଷ ସୁଦ୍ଧା, ପିଲା ବୁ s ିପାରେ ଯେ ତାଙ୍କର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକଳାପ ଏକ ହୋଇପାରେ |
ଜିନିଷ ଉପରେ ପ୍ରଭାବ ଯଥା କାରଣ ଏବଂ ପ୍ରଭାବ ସମ୍ପର୍କ, ଯୋଜନା ବିଷୟରେ ସଚେତନ ହୁଏ |
ଏକ ଲକ୍ଷ୍ୟ ହାସଲ କରିବା ପାଇଁ ତାଙ୍କର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ; ସରଳ ପରିସ୍ଥିତିକୁ ନିୟନ୍ତ୍ରଣ କରିବାକୁ ସକ୍ଷମ; ଭେଦଭାବ କରେ |
ଲୋକ ଏବଂ ବସ୍ତୁ ମଧ୍ୟରେ; ପରିଚିତ ଲୋକଙ୍କୁ ଚିହ୍ନିଥାଏ; ହାସଲ କରିବା ଆରମ୍ଭ କରେ |
ଭାଷା ଏବଂ ସାଧାରଣ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ଶବ୍ଦର ଅର୍ଥ ବୁ; ିଥାଏ; ଅନୁକରଣ କରେ
ଅନ୍ୟମାନଙ୍କର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଏବଂ ଆଚରଣ; ହୃଦୟଙ୍ଗମ କରେ ଯେ ବସ୍ତୁଗୁଡ଼ିକ କିଛି ଅବସ୍ଥାନ କରନ୍ତି |

Check Your Progress Exercise 3

1) In what ways can caregivers promote cognitive development?

The caregiver can help in cognitive development by providing the infant
stimulating experiences in keeping with the infant’s level of understanding.
The caregiver must provide her with a variety of play materials. Playing and
talking to the infant and directing her attention towards people and things will
help her to learn

1) देखभाल करने वाले किन तरीकों से संज्ञानात्मक विकास को बढ़ावा दे सकते हैं?

देखभाल करने वाला शिशु को प्रदान करके संज्ञानात्मक विकास में मदद कर सकता है
शिशु के समझ के स्तर को ध्यान में रखते हुए अनुभवों को उत्तेजित करना।
देखभाल करने वाले को उसे विभिन्न प्रकार की खेल सामग्री प्रदान करनी चाहिए। खेल रहा है और
शिशु से बात करना और लोगों और चीजों की ओर उसका ध्यान निर्देशित करना
उसे सीखने में मदद करें

1) କେଉଁ ଉପାୟରେ ଯତ୍ନ ନେଉଥିବା ବ୍ୟକ୍ତିମାନେ ଜ୍ଞାନଗତ ବିକାଶକୁ ପ୍ରୋତ୍ସାହିତ କରିପାରିବେ?

ଅଭିଭାବକ ଶିଶୁକୁ ଯୋଗାଇ ଜ୍ଞାନଗତ ବିକାଶରେ ସାହାଯ୍ୟ କରିପାରନ୍ତି |
ଶିଶୁର ବୁ understanding ାମଣା ସ୍ତର ସହିତ ଅନୁଭୂତିକୁ ଉତ୍ସାହିତ କରିବା |
ଯତ୍ନକାରୀ ତାଙ୍କୁ ବିଭିନ୍ନ ଖେଳ ସାମଗ୍ରୀ ଯୋଗାଇବା ଜରୁରୀ | ଖେଳିବା ଏବଂ
ଶିଶୁ ସହିତ କଥାବାର୍ତ୍ତା କରିବା ଏବଂ ଲୋକମାନଙ୍କୁ ଏବଂ ଜିନିଷ ପ୍ରତି ଧ୍ୟାନ ଦେବା |
ତାଙ୍କୁ ଶିଖିବାରେ ସାହାଯ୍ୟ କର |

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