DECE1-UNIT1-IGNOU-DAY4-ORSP

day 4 dece1

DECE1-UNIT1-IGNOU-DAY4-ORSP

UNIT 1

THE EXPERIENCE OFCHILDHOOD

Structure:

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Being a Child
1.3 The Socio-Cultural Context of Childhood
1.3.1 Gender
1.3.2 Social Class
1.3.3 Religion
1.3.4 Family Structure and Interrelationships
1.3.5 Ecological Contexts
1.4 Summing Up
1.5 Glossary
1.6 Aswers to Check Your Props Exercises

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Can you recollect some of the incidents of your childhood and your thoughts and
feelings as a child? Some happenings stand out in one’s memory, others are hazy and
some are forgotten. This Unit aims to recapture some of the experiences and feelings of
a child. There are many similarities among children. but each child’s experience of
childhood is a different one. An understanding about children helps in interacting with
them and is basic to organizing services and programmes for them.
Objectives
After studying this Unit, you should be able to:
describe some experiences and characteristics common to children studying
discuss how different socio-cultural settings influence the experience of childhood

(ତୁମେ ତୁମର ପିଲାଦିନର କିଛି ଘଟଣା ଏବଂ ତୁମର ଚିନ୍ତାଧାରାକୁ ସ୍ମରଣ କରିପାରିବ କି?
ପିଲାବେଳେ ଅନୁଭବ? କିଛି ଘଟଣା କାହାର ସ୍ମୃତିରେ ଛିଡା ହୁଏ, ଅନ୍ୟଗୁଡିକ ଅଶୁଭ ଏବଂ |
କିଛି ଭୁଲିଗଲେ | ଏହି ୟୁନିଟ୍ କିଛି ଅନୁଭୂତି ଏବଂ ଭାବନାକୁ ପୁନ  ପ୍ରାପ୍ତ କରିବାକୁ ଲକ୍ଷ୍ୟ ରଖିଛି |
ଏକ ଶିଶୁ ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ଅନେକ ସମାନତା ଅଛି | କିନ୍ତୁ ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ଶିଶୁର ଅଭିଜ୍ଞତା |
ପିଲାଦିନ ଏକ ଭିନ୍ନ ଅଟେ | ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କ ବିଷୟରେ ଏକ ବୁ understanding  ସହିତ ଯୋଗାଯୋଗ କରିବାରେ ସାହାଯ୍ୟ କରେ |
ସେଗୁଡିକ ଏବଂ ସେମାନଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ସେବା ଏବଂ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକ୍ରମ ଆୟୋଜନ ପାଇଁ ମ basic ଳିକ ଅଟେ |
ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟଗୁଡିକ
ଏହି ୟୁନିଟ୍ ଅଧ୍ୟୟନ କରିବା ପରେ, ଆପଣ ସକ୍ଷମ ହେବା ଉଚିତ୍:
ଅଧ୍ୟୟନ କରୁଥିବା ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ସାଧାରଣ କିଛି ଅଭିଜ୍ଞତା ଏବଂ ବ characteristics ଶିଷ୍ଟ୍ୟ ବର୍ଣ୍ଣନା କର |
ବିଭିନ୍ନ ସାମାଜିକ-ସାଂସ୍କୃତିକ ସେଟିଂସମୂହ ପିଲାଦିନର ଅଭିଜ୍ଞତାକୁ କିପରି ପ୍ରଭାବିତ କରେ ସେ ବିଷୟରେ ଆଲୋଚନା କରନ୍ତୁ |)

1.2 BEING A CHILD

Mala, an active five year old girl, is served roti and potato curry for lunch. The curry
has rai seeds in it. During the course of the meal she sees a rai seed, takes it out of the
bowl and starts to play with it. She puts it on the sable, moves i about, and says, “Look
mummy, this is a tiny ball. I wonder if the ants play with this ball!”

(ମାଲା, ଜଣେ ସକ୍ରିୟ ପାଞ୍ଚ ବର୍ଷର girl , ମଧ୍ୟାହ୍ନ ଭୋଜନ ପାଇଁ ରୋଟି ଏବଂ ଆଳୁ ତରକାରୀ ପରିବେଷଣ କରାଯାଏ | ତରକାରୀ |
ଏଥିରେ ରାଇ ମଞ୍ଜି ଅଛି | ଭୋଜନ ସମୟରେ ସେ ଏକ ରାଇ ମଞ୍ଜି ଦେଖନ୍ତି, ଏହାକୁ ସେଥିରୁ ବାହାର କରନ୍ତି |
ପାତ୍ର ଏବଂ ଏହା ସହିତ ଖେଳିବା ଆରମ୍ଭ କରେ | ସେ ଏହାକୁ ସେବଲ୍ ଉପରେ ରଖି, ମୁଁ ଘୁଞ୍ଚାଏ, ଏବଂ କହିଲା, ଦେଖ |
ମମି, ଏହା ଏକ ଛୋଟ ବଲ୍ | ମୁଁ ଭାବୁଛି କି ପିମ୍ପୁଡ଼ିମାନେ ଏହି ବଲ ସହିତ ଖେଳନ୍ତି କି! “)

Three year old Manoj , t0 his amazement, sees that there is now an infant brother in the
house with whom he has to share his parents’ love and attention. He does not like the
situation very much, but he tries to accept his brother and be friendly with him One
day, when the mother was late in getting ready because of the baby, Manoj remarked
vehemently, “Mummy, let’s give the baby away, then we will not be late.

(ତିନି ବର୍ଷର ମନୋଜ, ତାଙ୍କ ଆଶ୍ଚର୍ଯ୍ୟ, ଦେଖନ୍ତି ଯେ ସେଠାରେ ଏକ ଶିଶୁ ଭାଇ ଅଛନ୍ତି |
ଘର ଯାହା ସହିତ ତାଙ୍କୁ ପିତାମାତାଙ୍କ ପ୍ରେମ ଏବଂ ଧ୍ୟାନ ବାଣ୍ଟିବାକୁ ପଡିବ | ସେ ପସନ୍ଦ କରନ୍ତି ନାହିଁ
ପରିସ୍ଥିତି ବହୁତ, କିନ୍ତୁ ସେ ନିଜ ଭାଇକୁ ଗ୍ରହଣ କରିବାକୁ ଏବଂ ତାଙ୍କ ସହିତ ବନ୍ଧୁତ୍ୱପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ହେବାକୁ ଚେଷ୍ଟା କରନ୍ତି |
ଦିନ, ଯେତେବେଳେ ଶିଶୁଟି ହେତୁ ମା ପ୍ରସ୍ତୁତ ହେବାକୁ ବିଳମ୍ବ କରିଥିଲା, ମନୋଜ ମନ୍ତବ୍ୟ ଦେଇଥିଲେ |
ଅତିଶୟ ଭାବରେ, “ମମି, ଚାଲ ଶିଶୁକୁ ଦେବା, ତା’ହେଲେ ଆମେ ବିଳମ୍ବ କରିବୁ ନାହିଁ |)

Tara is going to be four. She enjoys playing in the rain as most children do. One rainy
day, she was playing outside and the members of the family were sitting together in a
room. After every few minutes Tara would come laughing into the room, hug her curs
and go out again to continue her play. On being invited to sit with the rest she would
protest, “No, no! I want to play outside.” This continued for quite some time.

(ତ|ର| ଚାରି ହେବାକୁ ଯାଉଛି | ଅଧିକାଂଶ ପିଲାଙ୍କ ପରି ସେ ବର୍ଷାରେ ଖେଳିବାକୁ ଭଲ ପାଆନ୍ତି | ଗୋଟିଏ ବର୍ଷା
ଦିନ, ସେ ବାହାରେ ଖେଳୁଥିଲେ ଏବଂ ପରିବାରର ସଦସ୍ୟମାନେ ଏକାଠି ବସିଥିଲେ |
କୋଠରୀ ପ୍ରତି କିଛି ମିନିଟ୍ ପରେ ତାର କୋଠରୀକୁ ହସି ହସି ଆସି ତା’ର ଅଭିଶାପକୁ ଆଲିଙ୍ଗନ କଲା |
ଏବଂ ତା’ର ଖେଳ ଜାରି ରଖିବାକୁ ପୁନର୍ବାର ବାହାରକୁ ଯାଅ | ବାକି ସହିତ ବସିବାକୁ ଆମନ୍ତ୍ରିତ ହେବାପରେ ସେ କରିବେ |
ବିରୋଧ, “ନା, ନା! ମୁଁ ବାହାରେ ଖେଳିବାକୁ ଚାହୁଁଛି |” ଏହା କିଛି ସମୟ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ ଚାଲିଲା |)

These anecdotes reveal the feelings and playfulness characteristic of children. It is only
child who can see a ball in a rai seed or pretend that a ball of mud is a piece of cake
and a tin box is a toy house. Make-believe comes easily to them and they endow
objects with qualities they do not actually have just as Mala did. In the second anecdote
is reflected the reaction of the child to the birth of a sibling which is ambivalent and
may range from jealousy and dislike to joyful acceptance. The third anecdote reflects the                                                    child’s early steps towards being on her own. She is realizing that she can do things by
herself and does not always need to have the protection of adults. However, while she is                                        learning to be independent, she needs to reassure herself of the presence of loved and                                                trusted persons. This she does by coming inside now and then.

(ଏହି ଉପନ୍ୟାସଗୁଡ଼ିକ ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କ ଭାବନା ଏବଂ ଖେଳନାତ୍ମକ ଚରିତ୍ରକୁ ପ୍ରକାଶ କରିଥାଏ | ଏହା କେବଳ ଅଟେ |
ଏକ ଶିଶୁ ଯିଏ କି ଏକ ରାଇ ମଞ୍ଜିରେ ଏକ ବଲ୍ ଦେଖିପାରେ କିମ୍ବା କାଦୁଅର ଏକ ବଲ୍ ହେଉଛି ପିଠା ଖଣ୍ଡ |
ଏବଂ ଏକ ଟିଣ ବାକ୍ସ ଏକ ଖେଳନା ଘର | ମେକ୍-ବିଶ୍ୱାସ ସେମାନଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ସହଜରେ ଆସେ ଏବଂ ସେମାନେ ପ୍ରଦାନ କରନ୍ତି |
ଗୁଣ ସହିତ ବସ୍ତୁଗୁଡ଼ିକ ସେମାନଙ୍କର ପ୍ରକୃତରେ ମାଲା ଭଳି ନାହିଁ | ଦ୍ୱିତୀୟ ଉପନ୍ୟାସରେ |
ଏକ ଭାଇଭଉଣୀର ଜନ୍ମ ପ୍ରତି ଶିଶୁର ପ୍ରତିକ୍ରିୟା ପ୍ରତିଫଳିତ ହୋଇଛି ଯାହା ଅସ୍ପଷ୍ଟ ଏବଂ |
ealous ର୍ଷା ଠାରୁ ଆରମ୍ଭ କରି ଆନନ୍ଦିତ ଗ୍ରହଣ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ ନାପସନ୍ଦ ହୋଇପାରେ | ତୃତୀୟ ଉପନ୍ୟାସଟି ନିଜେ ରହିବା ଦିଗରେ ଶିଶୁର ପ୍ରାରମ୍ଭିକ ପଦକ୍ଷେପଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ପ୍ରତିଫଳିତ କରେ | ସେ ହୃଦୟଙ୍ଗମ କରୁଛନ୍ତି ଯେ ସେ କିଛି କରିପାରିବେ |
ନିଜେ ଏବଂ ସର୍ବଦା ବୟସ୍କମାନଙ୍କ ସୁରକ୍ଷା ପାଇବା ଆବଶ୍ୟକ କରନ୍ତି ନାହିଁ | ତଥାପି, ଯେତେବେଳେ ସେ ସ୍ୱାଧୀନ ହେବାକୁ ଶିଖୁଛନ୍ତି, ସେତେବେଳେ ତାଙ୍କୁ ପ୍ରିୟ ଏବଂ ବିଶ୍ୱସ୍ତ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତିଙ୍କ ଉପସ୍ଥିତିରେ ନିଜକୁ ଆଶ୍ୱାସନା ଦେବା ଆବଶ୍ୟକ | ସେ ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନ ଏବଂ ପରେ ଭିତରକୁ ଆସି ଏହା କରନ୍ତି |)

Views that adults have about children’s capacities may not always be right. It is often
assumed that a child does not know what is happening around her and cannot make
sense of events. This is not true. It is also felt that children begin to think and
understand when they begin to speak. But we do know that infants understand many
words before that period. Some people expect children to run errands, look after
themselves and start attending school without emotional or other support from adults.
On the other hand, some think that children are immature, irrational, inaccurate in
their understanding of events and therefore, cannot do any task given to them.
Adults sometimes wrongly believe that nothing of consequence happens during
childhood.
(ବୟସ୍କମାନଙ୍କ ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କ ଦକ୍ଷତା ବିଷୟରେ ଥିବା ଦୃଶ୍ୟ ସବୁବେଳେ ଠିକ୍ ହୋଇନପାରେ | ଏହା ପ୍ରାୟତ is ହୋଇଥାଏ |
ଅନୁମାନ କଲେ ଯେ ଏକ ଶିଶୁ ତା’ର ଚାରିପାଖରେ କ’ଣ ଘଟୁଛି ଜାଣେ ନାହିଁ ଏବଂ ତିଆରି କରିପାରିବ ନାହିଁ |
ଘଟଣାଗୁଡ଼ିକର ଭାବନା | ଏହା ସତ୍ୟ ନୁହେଁ | ଏହା ମଧ୍ୟ ଅନୁଭବ ହୁଏ ଯେ ପିଲାମାନେ ଭାବିବା ଆରମ୍ଭ କରନ୍ତି ଏବଂ |
ଯେତେବେଳେ ସେମାନେ କହିବା ଆରମ୍ଭ କରନ୍ତି ବୁ understand ନ୍ତୁ | କିନ୍ତୁ ଆମେ ଜାଣୁ ଯେ ଶିଶୁମାନେ ଅନେକଙ୍କୁ ବୁ understand ନ୍ତି |
ସେହି ଅବଧି ପୂର୍ବରୁ ଶବ୍ଦ | କିଛି ଲୋକ ଆଶା କରନ୍ତି ଯେ ପିଲାମାନେ ଏରାଣ୍ଡ୍ ଚଳାନ୍ତୁ, ଯତ୍ନ ନିଅନ୍ତୁ |
ନିଜେ ଏବଂ ବୟସ୍କମାନଙ୍କଠାରୁ ଭାବପ୍ରବଣ କିମ୍ବା ଅନ୍ୟାନ୍ୟ ସମର୍ଥନ ବିନା ବିଦ୍ୟାଳୟରେ ପ begin ିବା ଆରମ୍ଭ କରନ୍ତି |
ଅନ୍ୟ ପଟେ, କେହି କେହି ଭାବନ୍ତି ଯେ ପିଲାମାନେ ଅପରିପକ୍ୱ, ଅଯ ational କ୍ତିକ, ଭୁଲ୍ |
ଘଟଣାଗୁଡ଼ିକର ସେମାନଙ୍କର ବୁ understanding ାମଣା ଏବଂ ତେଣୁ, ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ ଦିଆଯାଇଥିବା କ task ଣସି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରିପାରିବ ନାହିଁ |
ବୟସ୍କମାନେ ବେଳେବେଳେ ଭୁଲ ଭାବରେ ବିଶ୍ believe ାସ କରନ୍ତି ଯେ ଏହାର ପରିଣାମ କିଛି ହୁଏ ନାହିଁ |
ପିଲାଦିନ।)
Children have thoughts and emotions just as adults do, though they view the world in a
different way and their ways of expressing feelings are also different. A newborm can
sense feelings of love and affection by the way the parents hold her and look after her
needs. An eight month old child is able to comprehend a scolding or an endearment
even though she is not able to talk. She also understands and responds to sentences like,
“Give it to me” and “No, don’t do that.” If a game of peek-a-boo is played with a
10 month old child, she participates in the game by looking for the person and
anticipating her appearance. This reflects that the child is thinking. Achievements such
as these may seem very simple, but you have only to observe a child who has just
learnt to walk to see how gleefully she walks around the house for the pleasure of it
and bow she picks herself up again after falling down. Notice how she takes a few bold
(ବୟସ୍କମାନଙ୍କ ପରି ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କର ଚିନ୍ତାଧାରା ଏବଂ ଭାବନା ଥାଏ, ଯଦିଓ ସେମାନେ ଦୁନିଆକୁ ଏକରେ ଦେଖନ୍ତି |
ଭିନ୍ନ ଉପାୟ ଏବଂ ଭାବନା ପ୍ରକାଶ କରିବାର ଉପାୟ ମଧ୍ୟ ଅଲଗା | ଏକ ନୂତନ ବମ୍
ପିତାମାତାମାନେ ବେର ଧରି ତାଙ୍କ ଯତ୍ନ ନେବା ଦ୍ୱାରା ପ୍ରେମ ଏବଂ ସ୍ନେହର ଭାବନା ଅନୁଭବ କରନ୍ତୁ |
ଆବଶ୍ୟକତା ଜଣେ ଆଠ ଜଣ ମୋରିଥ୍ ବୃଦ୍ଧ ପିଲା ଏକ ଗାଳି ବା ପ୍ରେମକୁ ବୁ to ିବାରେ ସକ୍ଷମ |
ଯଦିଓ ସେ କଥାବାର୍ତ୍ତା କରିବାକୁ ସକ୍ଷମ ନୁହଁନ୍ତି | ସେ ମଧ୍ୟ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ବୁ understand ନ୍ତି ଏବଂ ପ୍ରତିକ୍ରିୟା କରନ୍ତି,
“ମୋତେ ଦିଅ” ଏବଂ “ନା, ତାହା କର ନାହିଁ।” ଯଦି ଏକ ପାଇକ୍-ଏ-ବୋଉର ଖେଳ ଖେଳାଯାଏ |
10 ମାସର ଶିଶୁ, ସେ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତିଙ୍କୁ ଖୋଜି ଖେଳରେ ଅଂଶଗ୍ରହଣ କରନ୍ତି ଏବଂ |
ବର୍ ଦେଖାଯିବା ଏହା ପ୍ରତିଫଳିତ କରେ ଯେ ପିଲାଟି ଚିନ୍ତା କରୁଛି | ଏହିପରି ସଫଳତା |
ଯେହେତୁ ଏଗୁଡିକ ଅତି ସରଳ ମନେହୁଏ, କିନ୍ତୁ ତୁମକୁ କେବଳ ଏକ ଶିଶୁକୁ ଦେଖିବା ଆବଶ୍ୟକ, ଯାହାର ଠିକ୍ ଅଛି |
ସେ ଉପଭୋଗ କରିବା ପାଇଁ ଘର ଚାରିପାଖରେ କେତେ ଆନନ୍ଦରେ ବୁଲିବାକୁ ଦେଖିବା ପାଇଁ ଲମ୍ଫ |
ତଳେ ପଡ଼ିଯିବା ପରେ ସେ ପୁଣି ନିଜକୁ ଉଠାଏ | ଧ୍ୟାନ ଦିଅନ୍ତୁ ଯେ ସେ କିପରି କିଛି ବୋଲ୍ଡ ନିଅନ୍ତି |)

Cute Little Girl - Baby Posters | OshiPrint.in

steps and then looks back at the mother for reassurance. You would have observed
many instances, where the child is learning and developing. Do they not bring forth a
picture of children as intelligent beings and of childhood a valuable time for
learning? Childhood is also a period when the child learns to form relationships with
people-first with parents, then with the wider family circle and later with other
adults and children. This requires considerable courage and confidence. Imagine what
you would feel if you shifted to a new town and had to make friends with new
people.

(ପଦାଙ୍କ ଏବଂ ତା’ପରେ ଆଶ୍ୱାସନା ପାଇଁ ମାତା ଆଡକୁ ଚାହିଁଥାଏ | ଆପଣ ଦେଖିଥିବେ |
ଅନେକ ଉଦାହରଣ, ଯେଉଁଠାରେ ପିଲା ଶିଖୁଛି ଏବଂ ବିକାଶ କରୁଛି | ସେମାନେ ଆଣନ୍ତି ନାହିଁ କି?
ବୁଦ୍ଧିମାନ ପ୍ରାଣୀ ଭାବରେ ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କର ଚିତ୍ର ଏବଂ ପିଲାଦିନର ଏକ ମୂଲ୍ୟବାନ ସମୟ |
ଶିଖିବା? ପିଲାଦିନ ମଧ୍ୟ ଏକ ସମୟ, ଯେତେବେଳେ ପିଲା ସହିତ ସମ୍ପର୍କ ଗ learn ିବାକୁ ଶିଖେ |
ଲୋକମାନେ-ପ୍ରଥମେ ପିତାମାତାଙ୍କ ସହିତ, ତା’ପରେ ବ୍ୟାପକ ପରିବାର ବୃତ୍ତ ସହିତ ଏବଂ ପରେ ଅନ୍ୟମାନଙ୍କ ସହିତ |
ବୟସ୍କ ଏବଂ ପିଲାମାନେ ଏଥିପାଇଁ ଯଥେଷ୍ଟ ସାହସ ଏବଂ ଆତ୍ମବିଶ୍ୱାସ ଆବଶ୍ୟକ | କ’ଣ କଳ୍ପନା କର |
ତୁମେ ଅନୁଭବ କରିବ ଯଦି ତୁମେ ଏକ ନୂଆ ସହରକୁ ସ୍ଥାନାନ୍ତରିତ ହୁଅ ଏବଂ ନୂତନ ସହିତ ବନ୍ଧୁତା କରିବାକୁ ପଡିବ |
ଲୋକମାନେ)
Children are keen to explore the world and are untiringly curious. Exploration and
questioning are the ways through which children learn. It is often difficult to make a
child sit still for even five minutes. They like to examine things and objects around
them. A new object is thumped, squeezed, banged, licked and often dismantled in an
“Aha! A new toy ”
attempt to examine it Notice the rapt look on the child’s face as she does so! Any new
event of experience brings forth a stream of “why?”, “how?” and “when?” so that the
child’s questions often tax the adult’s patience.

(ପିଲାମାନେ ଦୁନିଆକୁ ଅନୁସନ୍ଧାନ କରିବାକୁ ଆଗ୍ରହୀ ଏବଂ ନିରନ୍ତର ଭାବରେ ଆଗ୍ରହୀ ଅଟନ୍ତି | ଅନୁସନ୍ଧାନ ଏବଂ
ପ୍ରଶ୍ନଗୁଡିକ ହେଉଛି ଉପାୟ ଯାହା ମାଧ୍ୟମରେ ପିଲାମାନେ ଶିଖନ୍ତି | ଏହା କରିବା ପ୍ରାୟତ difficult କଷ୍ଟକର |
ପିଲା ପାଞ୍ଚ ମିନିଟ୍ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ ଚୁପ୍ ରୁହ | ସେମାନେ ଚାରିପାଖରେ ଥିବା ଜିନିଷ ଏବଂ ବସ୍ତୁଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ପରୀକ୍ଷା କରିବାକୁ ପସନ୍ଦ କରନ୍ତି |
ସେଗୁଡିକ ଏକ ନୂତନ ବସ୍ତୁକୁ ଥମ୍ପ୍, ଚିପିବା, ବାଙ୍ଗିବା, ଚାଟିବା ଏବଂ ପ୍ରାୟତ an ଏକରେ ଭାଙ୍ଗିବା |

“ଆହା! ଏକ ନୂଆ ଖେଳନା”
ଏହାକୁ ପରୀକ୍ଷା କରିବାକୁ ଚେଷ୍ଟା କର ଯେପରି ପିଲାଟିର ମୁହଁରେ ରାପ୍ଟ ଲୁକ୍ ଧ୍ୟାନ ଦିଅ! ଯେକ Any ଣସି ନୂତନ |
ଅଭିଜ୍ଞତାର ଘଟଣା “କାହିଁକି?”, “କିପରି?” ର ଏକ ଷ୍ଟ୍ରିମ୍ ଆଣିଥାଏ | ଏବଂ “କେବେ?” ଯାହାଫଳରେ
ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କର ପ୍ରଶ୍ନ ପ୍ରାୟତ the ବୟସ୍କଙ୍କ ଧ patience ର୍ଯ୍ୟକୁ ଟ୍ୟାକ୍ସ କରେ |)

74 Little Girl Feeding Baby Doll Stock Photos, Pictures & Royalty-Free Images - iStock

Children are fascinated by the adult world. Their desire is to be like adults in many
ways and to grow up as quickly as possible. They imitate the adults and pretend to be
like them by wearing their clothes and trying to talk and act like them. Some of the
games of children such as “Doctor-Doctor” and “Police-Thief” reflect their imitation of
the activities of adults.
(ପିଲାମାନେ ବୟସ୍କ ଜଗତ ଦ୍ୱାରା ଆକର୍ଷିତ ହୁଅନ୍ତି | ସେମାନଙ୍କର ଇଚ୍ଛା ହେଉଛି ଅନେକଙ୍କ ପରି ବୟସ୍କଙ୍କ ପରି ହେବା |
ଉପାୟ ଏବଂ ଯଥାସମ୍ଭବ ବ grow ିବା ପାଇଁ | ସେମାନେ ବୟସ୍କମାନଙ୍କୁ ଅନୁକରଣ କରନ୍ତି ଏବଂ ନିଜକୁ ଦେଖାନ୍ତି |
ସେମାନଙ୍କ ପୋଷାକ ପିନ୍ଧିବା ଏବଂ ସେମାନଙ୍କ ପରି କଥାବାର୍ତ୍ତା ଏବଂ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରିବାକୁ ଚେଷ୍ଟା କରି ସେମାନଙ୍କ ପରି | କିଛି
ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କର ଖେଳ ଯେପରିକି “ଡାକ୍ତର-ଡାକ୍ତର” ଏବଂ “ପୋଲିସ୍-ଚୋର” ସେମାନଙ୍କର ଅନୁକରଣକୁ ପ୍ରତିଫଳିତ କରେ |
ବୟସ୍କମାନଙ୍କ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକଳାପ)
Little Girl Plays Doctor Examining Baby Doll Patient With Toy.. Stock Photo, Picture And Royalty Free Image. Image 44046121.
All is not fun and play in childhood, as many adults tend to think. Children also learn
that many things are forbidden — they must not touch something, they must not bit other
children, they must stop playing after a specific time and so on. Many of the
instructions they are required to follow seem unreasonable to them. There often follows
a battle of wills between the parents and children. Learning to obey a rule is sometimes
painful because it prevents children from doing what they want to do. During the period
of childhood they also learn the ways of eating, dressing, talking and behaving
considered appropriate in their society and culture.
(ପିଲାଦିନେ ସମସ୍ତେ ମଜାଳିଆ ଏବଂ ଖେଳନ୍ତି ନାହିଁ, ଯେହେତୁ ଅନେକ ବୟସ୍କ ଭାବନ୍ତି | ପିଲାମାନେ ମଧ୍ୟ ଶିଖନ୍ତି |
ଅନେକ ଜିନିଷ ନିଷେଧ – ସେମାନେ କିଛି ସ୍ପର୍ଶ କରିବା ଉଚିତ୍ ନୁହେଁ, ସେମାନେ ଅନ୍ୟକୁ କାମୁଡ଼ିବା ଉଚିତ୍ ନୁହେଁ |
ପିଲାମାନେ, ସେମାନେ ଏକ ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦିଷ୍ଟ ସମୟ ପରେ ଖେଳିବା ବନ୍ଦ କରିବା ଆବଶ୍ୟକ | ଅନେକ
ଅନୁସରଣ କରିବାକୁ ସେମାନେ ଆବଶ୍ୟକ କରୁଥିବା ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦେଶଗୁଡ଼ିକ ସେମାନଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ଅଯ able କ୍ତିକ ମନେହୁଏ | ପ୍ରାୟତ follows ଅନୁସରଣ କରାଯାଏ |
ପିତାମାତା ଏବଂ ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ଇଚ୍ଛାର ଯୁଦ୍ଧ | ଏକ ନିୟମ ମାନିବା ଶିଖିବା ବେଳେବେଳେ |
ଯନ୍ତ୍ରଣାଦାୟକ କାରଣ ଏହା ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କୁ ଯାହା କରିବାକୁ ଚାହୁଁଛି ତାହା କରିବାକୁ ବାରଣ କରିଥାଏ | ଅବଧି ମଧ୍ୟରେ
ପିଲାଦିନରୁ ସେମାନେ ଖାଇବା, ପୋଷାକ ପିନ୍ଧିବା, ଲାଲ କରିବା ଏବଂ ଆଚରଣ କରିବାର ଉପାୟ ମଧ୍ୟ ଶିଖନ୍ତି |
ସେମାନଙ୍କ ସମାଜ ଏବଂ ସଂସ୍କୃତିରେ ଉପଯୁକ୍ତ ବିବେଚନା କରାଯାଏ |)
Children from diverse backgrounds, regions and countries are similar in many ways.
Many experiences of childhood are universal and an inevitable part of growing up.
However, childhood has a different meaning for every chid. In the next Section you
will read what makes childhood a different experience for each child.
(ବିଭିନ୍ନ ପୃଷ୍ଠଭୂମି, ଅଞ୍ଚଳ ଏବଂ ଦେଶର ପିଲାମାନେ ଅନେକ ଉପାୟରେ ସମାନ |
ପିଲାଦିନର ଅନେକ ଅନୁଭୂତି ସର୍ବଭାରତୀୟ ଏବଂ ବଂଚିବାର ଏକ ଅପରିହାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଅଂଶ |
ତଥାପି, ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ଚିଡ୍ ପାଇଁ ପିଲାଦିନର ଏକ ଭିନ୍ନ ଅର୍ଥ ଅଛି | ପରବର୍ତ୍ତୀ ବିଭାଗରେ ତୁମେ |
ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ପିଲାଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ପିଲାଦିନକୁ ଏକ ଭିନ୍ନ ଅନୁଭୂତି କରୁଥିବା ପ read ିବ |)
Check Your Progress Exercise 1
1) From your experiences and recollections note down an example of one of the
following in the space provided beiow.
a) Children’s curiosity
b) Children’s imitation of adults
Answer:
a) Children’s curiosity(ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କର କତୁହଳ |)

The more curious a child is, the more he learns. Nurturing your child’s curiosity is one of the most important ways you can help her become a lifelong learner.

Babies are born learners, with a natural curiosity to figure out how the world works. Curiosity is the desire to learn. It is an eagerness to explore, discover and figure things out.

Parents and caregivers don’t have to “make” their children curious or “push” their children to learn. In fact, research shows that it is a child’s internal desire to learn (their curiosity), not external pressure, that motivates him to seek out new experiences and leads to greater success in school over the long term.

Curiosity is something all babies are born with. They come into the world with a drive to understand how the world works:

  • A newborn follows sounds, faces and interesting objects with her eyes.
  • An 8-month-old shakes a rattle and then puts it into his mouth to see what this object can do.
  • A toddler takes a stool to reach the countertop where the phone is—a “toy” she loves to play with.
  • A 2-year-old pretends she is the garbage collector and puts all her stuffed animals into the laundry basket “garbage truck” to figure out what it feels like to be in the other person’s shoes.
b) Children’s imitation of adults(ବୟସ୍କମାନଙ୍କ ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କର ଅନୁକରଣ |)

One of our biggest responsibilities is to be a good example to our children. This is because children, especially during the first 5 years of life, imitate everything they see in adults.

For better or for worse, children imitate adults. Almost without us realizing it, their small eyes study and hone in on us, working in behaviors, copying gestures, and internalizing words, expressions, and even roles. We know that children will never be exact copies of their parents

Children don’t only imitate their parents. As we well know, they don’t simply experience isolated scenarios. Nowadays, they have more social stimulation than ever, and even “models” outside their own home or school. We also can’t forget television and those new technologies they use from a very early age.

Everything they see, hear, and happens around them influences them. We adults make up that vast theater of characters that they imitate and that will influence their conduct and even their way of understanding the world. More on this later.

Father and son with arms outstretched in front of water.
1.3THE SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEXT OF  CHILDHOOD 
(1.3 ଶିଶୁଙ୍କ ସାମାଜିକ-ସାଂସ୍କୃତିକ ଯୋଗାଯୋଗ |)
Normally, all children learn to speak a language during the course of growing up. A two
year old in India learns to speak her own language while a child in Spain learns
Spanish. One boy at the age of five begins going to a school; another of the same age
in a tribal settlement helps his father in farming and milking the buffalo; yet another is
adept at moving through the traffic on the roads to sell newspaper. The number of
people in the family, the customs, traditions, values and beliefs of the family and
community, economic status, residence in a village, a city, or a tribal settlement, whether
in the hills, plains, deserts or sea coast-these are some of the factors that influence
childhood experiences. Thus the society one lives in determines one’s experience of
childhood. This is what is meant by the socio-cultural context of childhood.
Though we can speak broadly of the Indian culture and the values therein, the customs,
beliefs and the way of life of people differ from one group to another. One cannot
speak of a homogeneous or uniform Indian culture but rather of sub-cultural groups,
each distinct from the other. This is because the groups differ with regard to economic
level, education, occupation, region, language and religion. The child’s experiences and
what she learns during this period would be different in each of these groups. You will
now read about the many factors that bring about variations in children’s experiences.
(ସାଧାରଣତ ,, ସମସ୍ତ ପିଲାମାନେ ବ during ିବା ସମୟରେ ଏକ ଭାଷା କହିବା ଶିଖନ୍ତି | ଏକ ଦୁଇଟି
ଭାରତରେ ବର୍ଷ ବୟସ୍କା ନିଜ ଭାଷା କହିବା ଶିଖନ୍ତି ଯେତେବେଳେ ସ୍ପେନର ଜଣେ ପିଲା ଶିଖନ୍ତି |
ସ୍ପାନିସ୍ ପାଞ୍ଚ ବର୍ଷ ବୟସରେ ଜଣେ ବାଳକ ଏକ ବିଦ୍ୟାଳୟକୁ ଯିବା ଆରମ୍ଭ କରେ; ସମାନ ବୟସର ଅନ୍ୟ ଜଣେ |
ଏକ ଆଦିବାସୀ ବସ୍ତିରେ ତାଙ୍କ ପିତାଙ୍କୁ ଚାଷ ଏବଂ କ୍ଷୀର କ୍ଷୀର କରିବାରେ ସାହାଯ୍ୟ କରନ୍ତି; ଅନ୍ୟଟି ହେଉଛି
ଖବରକାଗଜ ବିକ୍ରୟ ପାଇଁ ରାସ୍ତାରେ ଯାତାୟାତ କରିବାରେ ପାରଙ୍ଗମ | ସଂଖ୍ୟା
ପରିବାରର ଲୋକମାନେ, ରୀତିନୀତି, ପରମ୍ପରା, ମୂଲ୍ୟବୋଧ ଏବଂ ପରିବାରର ବିଶ୍ୱାସ ଏବଂ
ସମ୍ପ୍ରଦାୟ, ଅର୍ଥନ status ତିକ ସ୍ଥିତି, ଏକ ଗ୍ରାମରେ ବାସ, ସହର, କିମ୍ବା ଏକ ଆଦିବାସୀ ବସ୍ତି, ହେଉ କି |
ପାହାଡ, ସମତଳ, ମରୁଭୂମି କିମ୍ବା ସମୁଦ୍ର ଉପକୂଳରେ – ଏହା କେତେକ କାରଣ ଉପରେ ପ୍ରଭାବ ପକାଇଥାଏ |
ପିଲାଦିନର ଅନୁଭୂତି | ଏହିପରି ଭାବରେ ରହୁଥିବା ସମାଜ ଜଣଙ୍କର ଅଭିଜ୍ଞତା ନିର୍ଣ୍ଣୟ କରେ |
ପିଲାଦିନ। ପିଲାଦିନର ସାମାଜିକ-ସାଂସ୍କୃତିକ ପ୍ରସଙ୍ଗ ଦ୍ୱାରା ଏହା ହିଁ ବୁ .ାଯାଏ |
ଯଦିଓ ଆମେ ଭାରତୀୟ ସଂସ୍କୃତି ଏବଂ ସେଥିରେ ଥିବା ମୂଲ୍ୟବୋଧ, ରୀତିନୀତି ବିଷୟରେ ବିସ୍ତୃତ ଭାବରେ କହିପାରିବା |
ବିଶ୍ beliefs ାସ ଏବଂ ଲୋକଙ୍କ ଜୀବନଶ way ଳୀ ଗୋଟିଏ ଗୋଷ୍ଠୀରୁ ଅନ୍ୟ ଗୋଷ୍ଠୀ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ଭିନ୍ନ | ଜଣେ କରିପାରିବ ନାହିଁ |
ଏକ ସମାନ ବା ସମାନ ଭାରତୀୟ ସଂସ୍କୃତି ବିଷୟରେ କୁହନ୍ତୁ କିନ୍ତୁ ଉପ-ସାଂସ୍କୃତିକ ଗୋଷ୍ଠୀ ବିଷୟରେ,
ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ଅନ୍ୟଠାରୁ ଭିନ୍ନ | ଏହାର କାରଣ ହେଉଛି ଅର୍ଥନ to ତିକ ଦୃଷ୍ଟିରୁ ଗୋଷ୍ଠୀଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଭିନ୍ନ ଅଟନ୍ତି |
ସ୍ତର, ଶିକ୍ଷା, ବୃତ୍ତି, ଅଞ୍ଚଳ, ଭାଷା ଏବଂ ଧର୍ମ | ଶିଶୁର ଅନୁଭୂତି ଏବଂ
ସେ ଏହି ଅବଧିରେ ଯାହା ଶିଖନ୍ତି, ଏହି ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ଗୋଷ୍ଠୀରେ ଭିନ୍ନ ହେବ | ତୁମେ କରିବ
ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନ ଅନେକ କାରଣ ବିଷୟରେ ପ read ଼ନ୍ତୁ ଯାହା ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କ ଅଭିଜ୍ଞତାରେ ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନ ଆଣେ |)
How culture influences children's developmentHow culture influences children's development
1.3.1 Gender
A major factor which determines a child’s experience is whether the child is a boy or a
girl. How one is brought up, the opportunities available to one and the way people
interact with one are determined to a great extent by one’s gender. An obvious
difference is in the clothes worm. Less visible but more far reaching in its impact is the
differing attitude towards boys and girls. There is no doubt that in most parts of our
country boys are given more importance than girls. The birth of a boy is an occasion for
rejoicing while, in many cases, the birth of a girl reduces the parents to tears. In many
families girls may receive very little parental love, attention or care. They may get a
lesser share of food, clothing and other resources compared to boys. In some families,
when a girl falls ill it is treated casually but the boy’s illness. gets prompt attention.
Education is considered more important for boys than for girls. Parents often sell their
assets to educate their sons and marry their daughters.
(1.3..1 ଲିଙ୍ଗ)
ଏକ ପ୍ରମୁଖ କାରଣ ଯାହା ଶିଶୁର ଅଭିଜ୍ଞତା ନିର୍ଣ୍ଣୟ କରେ ପିଲାଟି ପୁଅ କି ନା |
girl ିଅ ଜଣେ କିପରି ପ୍ରତିପୋଷିତ ହୁଏ, ଗୋଟିଏ ପାଇଁ ଉପଲବ୍ଧ ସୁଯୋଗ ଏବଂ ଲୋକମାନଙ୍କ ଉପାୟରେ |
ଜଣଙ୍କ ସହିତ ପାରସ୍ପରିକ କ୍ରିୟା ଏକ ଲିଙ୍ଗ ଦ୍ୱାରା ବହୁ ପରିମାଣରେ ସ୍ଥିର ହୋଇଛି | ଏକ ସ୍ପଷ୍ଟ
ପୋଷାକ ପୋକରେ ପାର୍ଥକ୍ୟ | କମ୍ ଦୃଶ୍ୟମାନ କିନ୍ତୁ ଏହାର ପ୍ରଭାବରେ ଅଧିକ ଦୂର ହେଉଛି |
ପୁଅ ଏବଂ girls ିଅମାନଙ୍କ ପ୍ରତି ଭିନ୍ନ ମନୋଭାବ | ଏଥିରେ କ no ଣସି ସନ୍ଦେହ ନାହିଁ ଯେ ଆମର ଅଧିକାଂଶ ଭାଗରେ |
girls ିଅମାନଙ୍କ ଅପେକ୍ଷା ଦେଶ ପୁଅମାନଙ୍କୁ ଅଧିକ ଗୁରୁତ୍ୱ ଦିଆଯାଏ | ଏକ ପୁଅର ଜନ୍ମ ଏକ ଉତ୍ସବ |
ଅନେକ ସମୟରେ, girl ିଅର ଜନ୍ମ ପିତାମାତାଙ୍କୁ କାନ୍ଦିବାକୁ ଲାଗେ | ଅନେକରେ |
ପରିବାର girls ିଅମାନେ ପିତାମାତାଙ୍କ ପ୍ରେମ, ଧ୍ୟାନ କିମ୍ବା ଯତ୍ନ ନେଇପାରନ୍ତି | ସେମାନେ ପାଇପାରନ୍ତି |
ପୁଅମାନଙ୍କ ତୁଳନାରେ ଖାଦ୍ୟ, ପୋଷାକ ଏବଂ ଅନ୍ୟାନ୍ୟ ଉତ୍ସଗୁଡ଼ିକର କମ୍ ଅଂଶ | କେତେକ ପରିବାରରେ,
ଯେତେବେଳେ ଜଣେ girl ିଅ ଅସୁସ୍ଥ ହୁଏ ତେବେ ଏହାକୁ କାଜୁଆଲିଟି ଚିକିତ୍ସା କରାଯାଏ କିନ୍ତୁ ପୁଅର ଅସୁସ୍ଥତା | ତୁରନ୍ତ ଧ୍ୟାନ ପାଏ |
Girls ିଅମାନଙ୍କ ଅପେକ୍ଷା ପୁଅମାନଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ଶିକ୍ଷା ଅଧିକ ଗୁରୁତ୍ୱପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ବିବେଚନା କରାଯାଏ | ପିତାମାତାମାନେ ପ୍ରାୟତ their ସେମାନଙ୍କର ବିକ୍ରୟ କରନ୍ତି |
ସେମାନଙ୍କର ପୁଅମାନଙ୍କୁ ଶିକ୍ଷା ଦେବା ଏବଂ ସେମାନଙ୍କ daughters ିଅମାନଙ୍କୁ ବିବାହ କରିବା ପାଇଁ ସମ୍ପତ୍ତି |
Different values and behaviors are inculcated in boys and girls. In most matters the code
of conduct for girls is more strict. Boys are encouraged to be assertive, independent and
..ambitious. Girls are expected to be efficient in household tasks, obedient and respectful.
‘Decision making ability is not encouraged in girls and they are scolded if they argue too
much, laugh openly or talk loudly, The girl is treated as if she were a temporary person
in her own house and socialization is intended to prepare her for marriage.
The above discussion, however, only brings out a general trend. All girls are not
neglected and unloved. How girls are treated is determined to a great extent by the
She would als0 like to be in school
attitude of the family members. A family which does not discriminate between boys and
girls would treat them equally. Economic well being of the family is another factor that
influences the attitude of parents towards girls and boys. The next Section discusses how
social class brings about differences in the experiences of children.

(ବିଭିନ୍ନ ମୂଲ୍ୟବୋଧ ଏବଂ ଆଚରଣ ପୁଅ ଏବଂ girls ିଅମାନଙ୍କ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ଜଡିତ | ଅଧିକାଂଶ ପ୍ରସଙ୍ଗରେ କୋଡ୍ |
girls ିଅମାନଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ଆଚରଣ ଅଧିକ କଠୋର ଅଟେ | ବାଳକମାନେ ଉତ୍ସାହିତ, ସ୍ୱାଧୀନ ଏବଂ ଉତ୍ସାହିତ ହେବାକୁ ଉତ୍ସାହିତ ହୁଅନ୍ତି |
.. Home ିଅମାନେ ଘରୋଇ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟରେ ଦକ୍ଷ, ଆଜ୍ଞାକାରୀ ଏବଂ ସମ୍ମାନନୀୟ ବୋଲି ଆଶା କରାଯାଏ |
‘ନିଷ୍ପତ୍ତି ନେବା ଦକ୍ଷତା girls ିଅମାନଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ଉତ୍ସାହିତ ନୁହେଁ ଏବଂ ଯଦି ସେମାନେ ମଧ୍ୟ ଯୁକ୍ତି କରନ୍ତି ତେବେ ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ ଗାଳି ଦିଆଯାଏ |
ବହୁତ, ଖୋଲାଖୋଲି ହସ କିମ୍ବା ଉଚ୍ଚ ସ୍ୱରରେ କଥାବାର୍ତ୍ତା କର, girl ିଅଟି ଏକ ଅସ୍ଥାୟୀ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି ପରି ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ |

ନିଜ ଘରେ ଏବଂ ସାମାଜିକୀକରଣ ତାଙ୍କୁ ବିବାହ ପାଇଁ ପ୍ରସ୍ତୁତ କରିବା ପାଇଁ ଉଦ୍ଦିଷ୍ଟ |
ଉପରୋକ୍ତ ଆଲୋଚନା, କେବଳ ଏକ ସାଧାରଣ ଧାରା ଆଣିଥାଏ | ସମସ୍ତ girls ିଅ ନୁହଁନ୍ତି |
ଅବହେଳିତ ଏବଂ ଭଲପାଇବା Girls ିଅମାନଙ୍କୁ କିପରି ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ ତାହା ବହୁ ପରିମାଣରେ ସ୍ଥିର ହୋଇଛି |
ସେ als0 ବିଦ୍ୟାଳୟରେ ରହିବାକୁ ପସନ୍ଦ କରିବେ |
ପରିବାର ସଦସ୍ୟଙ୍କ ମନୋଭାବ | ଏକ ପରିବାର ଯାହା ପୁଅମାନଙ୍କ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ଭେଦଭାବ କରେ ନାହିଁ ଏବଂ
girls ିଅମାନେ ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ ସମାନ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରିବେ | ପରିବାରର ଆର୍ଥିକ ସୁସ୍ଥତା ହେଉଛି ଅନ୍ୟ ଏକ କାରଣ |
ବାଳିକା ଏବଂ ପୁଅମାନଙ୍କ ପ୍ରତି ପିତାମାତାଙ୍କ ମନୋଭାବକୁ ପ୍ରଭାବିତ କରେ | ପରବର୍ତ୍ତୀ ବିଭାଗ କିପରି ଆଲୋଚନା କରେ |
ସାମାଜିକ ଶ୍ରେଣୀ ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କ ଅଭିଜ୍ଞତାରେ ପାର୍ଥକ୍ୟ ଆଣିଥାଏ |)

1.3.2 Social Class
The social class to which a person belongs is determined by her education, occupation
and family’s income. People belonging to the upper social class have high incomes and
live in big houses. Lower social class is associated with a marginal income, often close
to poverty, low levels of education and smaller dwellings. Between the rich and the poor
there are several levels of socio-economic status. The social class to which a child
belongs will determine the opportunities and facilities available to her. Whether she gets
enough to eat and wear, whether she receives formal education and whether she is
equipped for a vocation will depend upon the family’s socio-economic status. This also
determines the living space and availability of facilities such as water and electricity.

Children In Poverty - Edison's Spiritual BiographySchool Children Participating Actively in Class. Education, Learning, High School by aleksejplatonov

ସାମାଜିକ ଶ୍ରେଣୀ ଯେଉଁଥିରେ ଜଣେ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି ତାଙ୍କର ଶିକ୍ଷା, ବୃତ୍ତି ଦ୍ୱାରା ନିର୍ଣ୍ଣୟ କରାଯାଏ |
ଏବଂ ପରିବାରର ଆୟ | ଉଚ୍ଚ ସାମାଜିକ ଶ୍ରେଣୀର ଲୋକମାନଙ୍କର ଉଚ୍ଚ ଆୟ ଏବଂ |
ବଡ ଘରେ ରୁହ | ନିମ୍ନ ସାମାଜିକ ଶ୍ରେଣୀ ଏକ ସାଂଘାତିକ ଆୟ ସହିତ ଜଡିତ, ପ୍ରାୟତ close ବନ୍ଦ |
ଦାରିଦ୍ର୍ୟ, ନିମ୍ନ ସ୍ତରର ଶିକ୍ଷା ଏବଂ ଛୋଟ ବାସଗୃହକୁ | ଧନୀ ଏବଂ ଗରିବଙ୍କ ମଧ୍ୟରେ |
ସାମାଜିକ-ଅର୍ଥନ status ତିକ ସ୍ଥିତିର ଅନେକ ସ୍ତର ଅଛି | ସାମାଜିକ ଶ୍ରେଣୀ ଯେଉଁଥିରେ ଏକ ଶିଶୁ |
ତାଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ଉପଲବ୍ଧ ସୁଯୋଗ ଏବଂ ସୁବିଧା ନିର୍ଣ୍ଣୟ କରିବ | ସେ ପାଆନ୍ତି କି ନାହିଁ |
ଖାଇବା ଏବଂ ପିନ୍ଧିବା ପାଇଁ ଯଥେଷ୍ଟ, ସେ ଆନୁଷ୍ଠାନିକ ଶିକ୍ଷା ଗ୍ରହଣ କରନ୍ତି କି ନାହିଁ |
ଏକ ବୃତ୍ତି ପାଇଁ ସଜ୍ଜିତ ପରିବାରର ସାମାଜିକ-ଅର୍ଥନ status ତିକ ସ୍ଥିତି ଉପରେ ନିର୍ଭର କରିବ | ଏହା ମଧ୍ୟ |
ବାସସ୍ଥାନ ଏବଂ ଜଳ ଏବଂ ବିଦ୍ୟୁତ୍ ଭଳି ସୁବିଧା ଉପଲବ୍ଧତା ନିର୍ଣ୍ଣୟ କରେ |

जिस सामाजिक वर्ग का व्यक्ति अपनी शिक्षा, व्यवसाय से निर्धारित होता है
और परिवार की आय। उच्च सामाजिक वर्ग से संबंधित लोगों के पास उच्च आय है और
बड़े घरों में रहते हैं। निम्न सामाजिक वर्ग एक सीमांत आय के साथ जुड़ा हुआ है, अक्सर करीब है
गरीबी, शिक्षा के निम्न स्तर और छोटे आवासों के लिए। अमीर और गरीब के बीच
सामाजिक-आर्थिक स्थिति के कई स्तर हैं। सामाजिक वर्ग जिसमें एक बच्चा है
संबंधित उसके लिए उपलब्ध अवसरों और सुविधाओं का निर्धारण करेगा। वह मिलता है या नहीं
खाने और पहनने के लिए पर्याप्त है, चाहे वह औपचारिक शिक्षा प्राप्त करे और चाहे वह
एक व्यवसाय के लिए सुसज्जित परिवार की सामाजिक-आर्थिक स्थिति पर निर्भर करेगा। ये भी
पानी और बिजली जैसी सुविधाओं के रहने की जगह और उपलब्धता को निर्धारित करता है।

Families of the Lower Social Class: A family belonging to the lower social class does
not have enough money to buy all the necessities of life. Children may not get adequate
food and clothes. Since resources are scarce, girls get a lesser share. Houses are usually
one or two room shelters shared by the entire family. Children live in crowded quarters.

In slums and crowded dwellings the surroundings may be dirty and unhygienic which

may lead to infections and diseases. Many of the needs and desires of the children in a

poor family remain unfulfilled. Extreme poverty compounds these problems. In such

cases, children may not get one square meal a day and lacking shelter they sleep on the

roadside, railway stations ete.

Child kept playing around parents bodies at railway station in Karnataka, even police couldn't hold their tears | India.com

In a poor family children have to shoulder responsibilities at an early age. You must

have seen girls barely four or five years old assisting the mother in household tasks

such as fetching water, collecting firewood, preparing meals and running errands. Boys

help the father in his occupation–they guard cattle, help in the fields, accompany him

in the boet and assist him in crafts such as carpentry or pottery. Besides assisting the

parents in household work, many children move out of the protective shelter of the

house to earn and supplement the family income. They work as domestic servants,

cleaners, venders ragpickers. A major responsibility of the young girls is to manage

the home and look after younger children when both the parents go out to work.

Alternatively, the mother takes the children along with her to her place of work which

may be a house, a field or a construction site. The infant lies in a makeshift cradle

throughout the day with occasional interaction with the mother. When a little older she

may roam around the worksite playing with whatever she can find. Since both parents

are working, the time they spend with their children gets reduced.

Education obviously falls low in priority in such a set up, particularly in the case of

girls, Parents on the survival level do not consider schooling a necessity. Children are

either needed to assist the parents in their work or to earn money. Despite this, many

children of lower social class may attend school if it is possible to do so. In this way

they combine work and education.

Working in the fields-learning as well as playing

Responsibility and deprivation, which the children from lower social class have to face,

may accelerate emotional maturity. In many ways the child becomes worldly wise. At a

young age she learns to fend for herself. She learns to demand the right price for the

fruit that she is selling. She may board a train from a remote village and come to the

Childhood for most children belonging to the lower social class is full of cares and

responsibilities. However, this does not mean that they have no pleasant experiences.

Amidst their work children do play. Their play materials are stones, twigs and empty

boxes, They play in the streets, in the fields, near the coast with the sand and with

water. Frequently there is warmth, love and nurturance from the parents. Children are

valued for their contribution to the family income. However, life is harder for such a

child than for one who belongs to an economically well-off family.

 

Familles of the Middle and High Social Class: Families belonging to the middle and

high social class are well-off and children do not lack the basic necessities of life. Both

boys and girls get adequate amounts of food and clothing and do not generally suffer

lack of health care. Most of the families can purchase play material for children from

the market such as dolls, guns, puzzle sets, drawing books, colours and books. Children

do not need to take part in economic activities early in life. Whether they assist in

day-to-day chores depends on the family. If there is a hired help, as in the case of

well-off families, children may not assist in household tasks. In a rich family the child

has more luxuries. She does not need to take a bus to go to school since she will be

taken by car. The child usually has more clothes, expensive play material and may get a

variety of foods to eat.

Education is considered to be of primary importance and in a sense the child’s sole task

is to do well in school. In general, education is valued equally for boys and girls.

However, there is some evidence that boys get preference in this regard. In the cities

and towns there is immense pressure on the children to do well in academic work. Often

rigorous tutoring of the child begins from the tender age of three in order to get her

admission in a school. For most children the day is spent in going to school, doing

homework and playing.

Ideally education is expected to foster independence, clarity of thought and assertiveness.

With the changing values in our society these traits are being encouraged. But an

ambivalence in the attitude towards girls is still apparent. While encouraging girls to

pursue education, parents still expect them to be subservient. They scold the girl for

being outspoken and aggressive, pointing out that these traits will not help her to adjust

to her future roles.Economic well-being makes childhood a period where the child can make use of

opportunities available to her without worrying about everyday problems.

 

Child Labour: You have just read that some children assist the parents in the work at

home or in the family’s occupation or work as wage earners. When children work at

home or in the family occupation, their needs are looked after and there is love from

parents. There is some time for play and recreation. The work experience in the family

may be rewarding and children will acquire skills which will help them to take up a

vocation. Such involvement of children in economic activities is called child work, to be

differentiated from child labour about which you will now read.

 

Some children work under unhealthy, difficult and exploitative conditions where the

wages they receive are not adequate and where the jobs they do are dangerous. The

drudgery of their work does not allow any time for play or schooling. The jobs which

children do are usually unskilled and do not prepare them for a vocation for later life.

Their work experiences thus become a hindrance to their development. In many small

scale and domestic industries children are employed as labour. Some of the industries

where child labour is prevalent are that match manufacturing in Sivaksi, Tamil Nadu, slate

pencil making in Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh; embroidery in Jammu & Kashmir; and

lock industry in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh. Besides working as labour in indusvies, children

are employed as domestic help, cleaners or inechanics. They work long hours at back

breaking jobs for scanty wages.

Let us examine the situation of children in the lock industry of Aligarh Children start

working at the ages of six or seven in this industry. An average working day is between

12 and 14 hours. Some children work for 18 to 20 hours . When they get

tired they take a nap or have some lea. The working conditions are unhealthy with ill

ventilated and overcrowded rooms. The wages are very low and the operations

hazardous. Electroplating, handpresses, spray painting and polishing on buffing

machines are the most dangerous jobs in the industry and 50 to 70 per cent of this

work is done by children. Electroplating, for example, requires children to dip metal in

acid and alkaline solutions. The chemicals used this are dangerous-potassium

cyanide, hydrochloric and chromic acid, sodium hydroxide etc. Children work without

aprons or gloves and their hands are immersed in these solutions for a major part of

the day. This is very harmful for their health. Electric shocks are frequent. Within a

matter of six to seven years, that is by the time the children are 13 or 14 years old,

they suffer from chest diseases, skin allergy or cancer.

This specific case of the lock industry of Aligarh illustrates the extreme hardships that

can be a part of childhood for some children. However, childhood is not such a harsh

experience for everyone. Children usually find opportunities for play and the

development of skills relevant to their own situations.

Check Your Progress Exercise 2

1) From your reading and general observatior in your family or neighbourhood, write

about the following in the space provided below.

a) Reaction of parents to:

  • i)birth of a son
  • ii)  birth of a daughter

b) Differences in the school attendance of boys and girls of lower social class.

c) The kind of tasks children do in the home to help the family

2) Explain the term ‘Child Labour’.

 

 

 

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QUIZ TIME

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LEADERBOARD

  • Pos.
    Name
    Score
    Duration
    Points
  • 1
    Puspanjali Mohanta
    100 %
    13 s
    7
  • 2
    Monalisa Mahanta
    100 %
    13 s
    7
  • 3
    Sunita Badatya
    100 %
    14 s
    7
  • 4
    Pujalata Sandha
    100 %
    22.33 s
    7.67
  • 5
    Sasmita Das
    100 %
    32.43 s
    7
  • 6
    Archana Das
    100 %
    33.5 s
    8
  • 7
    Satyabati Naik
    100 %
    35 s
    9
  • 8
    Suchismita Mahanta
    100 %
    41.75 s
    8
  • 9
    Rita Bindhani
    100 %
    42 s
    7
  • 10
    Nitima Purty
    100 %
    50 s
    7
  • 11
    TAPASWINI NAIK
    100 %
    70 s
    7
  • 12
    Prasadini Senapati
    100 %
    75 s
    7
  • 13
    Gyanaranjan Behera
    100 %
    120 s
    7
  • 14
    Niharbala Mohanta
    100 %
    130 s
    9
  • 15
    Reeta Nahak
    100 %
    302 s
    7
  • 16
    Tamanna Pattanayak
    99.64 %
    25.91 s
    8.79
  • 17
    Reena Mohanta
    99.2 %
    13.77 s
    6.95
  • 18
    Puspanjali Mohanta
    98.29 %
    17.26 s
    7.15
  • 19
    Rasmilata BHAKTA
    98.14 %
    29.62 s
    8.8
  • 20
    Bharati Sahu
    98.07 %
    31.44 s
    8.62
  • 21
    Nibedita Panda
    97.6 %
    63 s
    8.8
  • 22
    Damayanti Mahanta
    97.5 %
    66.83 s
    6.83
  • 23
    Abhaya Panigrahi
    96.08 %
    32 s
    8.67
  • 24
    Manjulata Mahanta
    96 %
    90.67 s
    8.67
  • 25
    Runu Sau
    95.71 %
    67.29 s
    6.71
  • 26
    Sabita Sahoo
    95 %
    84 s
    6.67
  • 27
    Gitarani Sahoo
    95 %
    113.67 s
    6.67
  • 28
    Yogismita Dash
    94 %
    56.8 s
    6.6
  • 29
    Puspanjali Mohanta
    93.9 %
    26.15 s
    8.48
  • 30
    Monalisa Bhuyan
    93.17 %
    50.33 s
    7.83
  • 31
    Panamani Sing
    92.5 %
    26.5 s
    6.5
  • 32
    Anindita Sahoo
    92.5 %
    79.5 s
    6.5
  • 33
    Champabati Meher
    92.5 %
    96.5 s
    6.5
  • 34
    Jyotiranjan Mahanta
    88.5 %
    97 s
    7
  • 35
    Anupama Bag
    88.5 %
    142.5 s
    7
  • 36
    Girijarani Mohanta
    88.2 %
    39.8 s
    7.6
  • 37
    Sonali Patra
    88.2 %
    64.2 s
    6.2
  • 38
    Shraddha Khatua
    87.5 %
    55.25 s
    7.5
  • 39
    Binapani Mahanta
    85.5 %
    63.5 s
    6
  • 40
    Jayanta Kumar
    85 %
    26 s
    6
  • 41
    Smrutichhanda Parida
    85 %
    49 s
    6
  • 42
    Suvakanta Panda
    85 %
    74 s
    6
  • 43
    Gitanjali Swain
    85 %
    76 s
    6
  • 44
    Anuradha Mohanta
    85 %
    97 s
    6
  • 45
    Binapani Chamar
    85 %
    102 s
    6
  • 46
    Smaranika Nayak
    83.67 %
    107 s
    6.33
  • 47
    Bhabasmita Mohanta
    78.67 %
    24 s
    6.33
  • 48
    Ranjita Yadav
    78.5 %
    61 s
    5.5
  • 49
    Krishna Naik
    78.5 %
    132.5 s
    5.5
  • 50
    Pratima Mahanta
    78 %
    34 s
    5.5
  • 51
    Asis kumar
    71 %
    226 s
    5
  • 52
    Deeptimayee Mahanta
    69 %
    250.25 s
    6.25
  • 53
    Sonali Naik
    66 %
    70 s
    6
  • 54
    Sasmita Pradhan
    66 %
    87 s
    6
  • 55
    Arati Mohanty
    66 %
    96 s
    6
  • 56
    Bimal Sahu
    55 %
    48.25 s
    5
  • 57
    Anita Mohanta
    55 %
    381 s
    5
  • 58
    Rashmi Rekha
    0 %
    9 s
    0
  • 59
    Mamata Jena
    0 %
    9.5 s
    0
  • 60
    Priscilla Lakra
    0 %
    11 s
    0

 

 

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