DECE2-Solution(CH-6)-IGNOU-DAY 20-ORSP

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Chapter-1 Introduction to Nutrition and Health
Unit 1    The Concept of Nutrition
Unit 2    The Concept of Health
Unit 3     Indicators of Health
Chapter-2  Basic Concepts in Nutrition
Unit 4 The Macronutrients-I: Carbohydrates And Water
Unit-5 The Macronutrients-II: Proteins and Fats
Unit-6 The Micronutrients-1 : Vitamins
Unit-7 The Micronutrients-II: Minerals
Unit-8 Planning Balanced Diets
Chapter-3 Nutrition and Health Care during Pregnancy and Lactation
Unit-9   Meal Planning for Pregnant and Lactating Women
Unit-10 Health Care during Pregnancy
Unit-11  Health Care during Intranatal and Postnatal Periods
Chapter-4 Nutrition and Health Care during Infancy and Early Childhood
Unit-12 Nutrition during Infancy
Unit-13 Nutrition during Early Childhood
Unit-14 Health Care of the Child
Chapter-5 Nutrition Related Disorders in Early Childhood
Unit-15 Major Deficiency Diseases – 1: PEM and Xerophthalmia
Unit-16 Major Deficiency Diseases – II: Anaemia and lodine Deficiency Disorders
Unit-17Other Nutritional Disorders
Chapter-6 Nutrition and Health Programmes
Unit-18 Major Nutrition Programme
Unit-19 Major Health Programme
Unit-20 Assessment of Nutritional Status
Chapter-7 Common Childhood Illnesses, Their Prevention and Management -1
Unit-21 Caring for the Sick Child I
Unit-22 Some Disorders of the Alimentary System
Unit-23 Some Disorders of the Respiratory System
Unit-24 Some Infections of the Mouth and Throat
Unit-25 Some Problems of the Eyes
Chapter-8 Commom Childhood illness,Their Prevention And Management 
Unit-26 Common Diseases of the Skin
Unit-27 Common Problems of the Bars
Unit-28 Fevers
Unit-29 Lumps and Swellings
Unit-30 First Aid
DECE2-Solution(CH-6)-IGNOU-DAY 20-ORSP


Nutrition and Health Programmes

Q1. State the beneficiaries of, the services provided by, the objectives of and the
challenges faced in the Mid-Day Meal Program.
Q1। के लाभार्थियों, द्वारा प्रदान की गई सेवाओं, के उद्देश्यों और के बारे में बताएं
मध्याह्न भोजन कार्यक्रम में चुनौतियों का सामना करना पड़ा।
Ans, Tamil Nadu was the first to initiate a massive noon meal programme to
children. Neither a child that is hungry, nor a child that is ill can be expected to
learn. Realizing this need the Mid-Day Meal (MDM) Scheme was launched in
primary schools during 1962-63.
Mid-Day Meal improves three areas:
1. School attendance
2. Reduced dropouts
3. A beneficial impact on children’s nutrition.
The Central Government supplies the full requirement of food grains for the
programme free of cost. For its implementation in rural areas, Panchayats and
Nagarpalikas are also involved or setting up of necessary infrastructure for
preparing cooked food. For this purpose NGOs, women’s group and parent-teacher
councils can be utilized. The total charges for cooking, supervision and kitchen are
eligible for assistance under Poverty Alleviation Programme. In several states,
supplementary feeding was assisted by food supplies from Cooperation for
American Relief Everywhere (CARE) and World Food Programme (WFP). There are
problems of administration and quality of food that have affected the programme
Objectives: The objectives of the mid-day meal scheme are:
1. Improving the nutritional status of children in classes I – VIII in Government,
Local Body and Government aided schools, and EGS and ATE centers
2. Encouraging poor children, belonging to disadvantaged sections, to attend
school more regularly and help them concentrate on classroom activities.
3. Providing nutritional support to children of primary stage in drought-affected
Challenges faced in the Mid-Day Meal Program: Mid-Day Meal Scheme is being
implemented in India since August 15, 1995, as a part of the National Program of
Nutritional Support to Primary Education. It was introduced in India with an
objective to enhance enrolment retention and attendance and simultaneously
improving nutritional levels among children. Teachers play a key role in the
successful implementation of mid-day meal scheme at school level. The paper
focuses on the problems faced by teachers in the implementation of mid-day meal
scheme. The study on which this paper is based was conducted in the Jammu
Province. Survey method of descriptive research was used. Multistage sampling
technique was used for the selection of sample. The sample size comprised 200
Teachers selected randomly from the primary schools of Jammu Province. Sell
prepared questionnaire was used to collect the primary data Data was analyzed
using simple statistical technique such as percentages. Teachers pointed out a
number of problems such as problem of management of the mid day meal wastage
of food by the students insufficient and delayed receipt of funds increased
workload of teachers, procuring dry ration from the retail shops lack of
infrastructure for storage cooking and serving food lack of safety provisions
unhygienic surroundings etc being faced by them in implementation of Mid-Day
Meal Scheme. The paper puts forward certain suggestions for effective
implementation of the scheme so that objectives of mid-day meal can be achieved
Q2. Enumerate important National Health Programs operational in the country.
Ans. During the last four decades, since the attainment of Independence
considerable progress has been achieved in India in the promotion of the health
status of its population. You know that small pox has been completely eliminated,
the expectancy of life at birth has increased significantly. This progress could be
achieved due to several steps taken by the National Government.
Among such measures, one is implementation of a number of health programs.
These programmes are normally referred to as National Health Programmes. Are
you aware of these programmes? For your information, the main health
programmes are listed here:
National Irnmunisation Programme
National Family Welfare Programme
National Programme for Prevention of Nutritional Blindness due to Vitamin A Deficiency
National Nutritional Anaemia Control Programme
National lodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme
National Filaria Control Programme
National Programme for Control of Blindness
National Aids Control Programme
National Mental Health Programme
National Diabetes Control Programme
National Tuberculosis Control Programme
National Malaria Eradication Programme
Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme.
The National Health Programmes are financed by the Government of India. Several
of these programmes are assisted by international health agencies such as WHO and
Q3. Describe the methods used in assessment of nutritional status
Ans.How do we determine the nutritional status of individuals? Before we discuss the
techniques, let us quickly recall the meaning of nutritional status. Nutritional status,
refers to the state of health of an individual as it is affected by the intake and utilisation
of nutrients. From this definition, it seems that evaluation of nutrient intake alone can
help judge the nutritional status of individuals. Would you agree? Well, it is not all that
simple. Consider the example of a child who is not growing adequately. The child’s
failure to achieve an adequate rate of growth, for instance, may be caused due to
heredity factors, infections/other diseases, dietary lock or any other factor. Hence,
evaluating the food intake alone may not give sufficient evidence for judging the
nutritional status. What might be helpful, however, would be to put together information
about the type of illness, if any, including the observable signs of ill health the child is
suffering from the level of nutrients and other substances in the blood and urine. This
information you would notice would help confirm whether the growth failure is caused
by inadequate nutrient intake or some other factor.
From our discussion above it is, therefore, evident that there is and can be no one
simple procedure for assessing nutritional status. Because a particular finding may be
due to any of the several causes, a variety of standard assessment techniques may be
used to determine nutritional status. There are four major methods used to assess
nutritional status of individuals which include:
-Anthropometric measurement
-Clinical method
-Biochemical analysis
-Diet survey
What are these methods? What information do they provide? How and when to use these
techniques in assessing nutritional status? These are some of the aspects discussed in the
next section. Remember each of these nethods has an unique contribution as well as
inherent limitations that needs to be considered in the interpretation of data, but taken
together they can confirm suspicions and provide factual basis for corrective measures.
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