NOUN-6(NUMBER)-ENGLISH-ORSP

NOUN 6

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NOUN-6(NUMBER)-ENGLISH-ORSP

NOUN(NUMBER)Chapter-III

It is two types

  • Singular
  • Plural

Part (I) How plurals are Formed— 

(1)General Noun + S =plural noun

cat =cats                         king =kings

Dog=dogs                     Queen=queens

Horse=horses              Teacher=teachers

Cow=cows                    Friend=friends

(2)Nouns that end with——->(Z,S,Ss,CH,sh,x) + es =plural noun

Class—>classes                            church—>churches

Brush—>brushes                        Match—>matches

Kiss—>kisses                               Bench—>benches

Summons—>summonses         Tax—->taxes

 

EXAM:-

The court has issued a summons.

The court has issued five summons. (summouses)

(3) Nouns that end with ‘y’

(A) Consonant + y —-remove ‘y’  ——–>’ies’

Baby—->babies

Variety—->varieties

Army—->armies

City—->cities

Lady—->ladies

Party—->parties

(B) Vowel +y—>ADD ‘s’ to fourth form

Boy—->boys

Donkey—->donkeys

Toy—->toys

Day—>days

Monkey—->monkeys

Key—->keys

(4) Nouns that end with ‘o’

(A)Consonant +o + es= plural noun

Mango=mangoes                                       Mosquito=mosquitoes

Desperado(बेधड़क=Desperadoes                         Negro= Negroes

Echo=echoes                                              Potato=potatoes

Eskimo=eskimoes                                    Tomato=tomatoes

Flamingo=flamingoes                             Tomado=tomadoes

Fresco=frescoes                                       Veto=vetoes

Grotto=grottoes                                       Volcano=volcanoes

Halo=haloes

Exceptions:-

Dynamo=dynamos       Canto=cantos          Manifesto=manifestos

Embryo=Embryos      Commando=commandos      Photo=photos

Kilo=kilos       Maestro=maestros       Piano=pianos    Proviso=provisos

Note:-some nouns that end with ‘o’ can form their plural by adding both ‘s’ and ‘es’

Cargo—->cargos/cargoes

Matto—–>mottos/mottoes

Lasso—->lassos/lassoes

Portico—->porticos/porticoes

(B)

(a)Vowel + o ——->(ADD ‘s’ ) =plural noun

Bamboo—->bamboos       Portfolio—–>portfolios

Cameo—->cameos     Radio—->radios

Cuckoo—–>cuckoos      Ratio—–>ratios

Curio—–>curios      Scenario—–>scenarios

Folio—->folios       Studio—–>studios

Video—–>videos

(5) Nouns that end with ‘f’ OR ‘fe’

(A) Remove ‘f’ or fe ——->(add ‘ves’)=plural noun

Wife—>wives      Elf—>elves     Life—>lives

Self—>selves    Knife—>knives    Shelf—>shelves

Leaf—>leaves    Theif—>thieves   Loaf—->loaves

Sheaf—>sheaves      Wolf(ଗଧିଆ)—->wolves     Calf—->calves

Half—->halves

(B) Other nouns that end with ‘f’ or fe (takes)  ‘s’ =plural noun

Brief—>briefs

Safe—->safes

Chief—>chiefs

Proof—>proofs

Roof—->roofs

Turf—-.turfs

Note:- 4 nouns can take both ‘s’ and ‘ves’ (Their plural can be made by both the above rules )

Hoof(ଖୁର)—hoofs        Hoof—->hooves

Wharf—>wharfs     Wharf—->wharves

Scarf—->scarfs       Scarf—->scarves

Staff—>staffs     Staff—>staves

(6)Plural of some nouns are formed by changing the vowel that comes betweenthem .

MAN—>MEN              FOOT—->FEET              WOMAN—–>WOMEN

TOOTH—->TEETH      GOOSE—>GEESE     MOUSE—->MICE     LOUSE—->LICE

(7)Plural of some are formed by adding ;en’ OR ‘ren’ to them.

Child—>children

Ox—->oxen

(8) Foreign plurals

(A)Some latin & Greek nouns thats end with ‘um’ —> Their plural is formed by removing ‘um’ & ‘a’

 Singular                                  Plural                          Singular                           Plural 

Addendum                            addenda                         Datum                             data

Agendum                               agenda                           Maximum                     maxima

Bacterium                            bacteria                         Minimum                       minima

Corrigendum                     corrigenda                  Momentum                    momenta

Crematorium                     crematoria           (Agendum , Datum)

(Note -I)

Some Latin & Greek nouns thats end with ‘um’ —–> Their plural is formed by removing ‘um’ & adding ‘s’

 Singular                     Plural                              Singular                       Plural   

Album                       albums                        Decorum                      decorums

Mausoleum            mausoleums                 Pendulum                     pendulums

Museum                 museums                       Forum                           forums

Asylum                   asylums                          Preminu                       premiums

Nostrum               nostrums                        Geranium                        geraiums

Auditorium         auditorium                       Quorum                            quorums

(Note-II)

Some Latin & Greek nouns thats end with ‘um’ —–> Their plural is formed by removing ‘um’ OR  adding ‘a’

Singular                        Plural

Aquarium               aquariums   OR  aquaria

Symposium            Symposiums OR Symposia

Medium                  mediums OR media

Dictum                   dictums OR    dicta

Memorandum       Memorandums  OR  Memoranda

Podium                   podiums  OR    podia

Rostrum                  rostrums  OR rostra

Stratum                   straums   OR   strata

Ultimatum             ultimatums  OR   ultimata

(B)Some Greek nouns that end with ‘is’ —> Their piural is formed by removing ‘is’ & adding ‘es’.

Singular                             Plural

Analysis                         analyses

Hypothesis                    hypotheses

Axis                                 axes

Oasis                              oases

Basis                             bases

Metamorphosis        metamorphoses

Crisis                          crises

Narcosis                    narcosis

Parenthesis               parentheses

Diagnosis                 diagnoses

Synopsis                  synopses

Ellipsis                     ellipses

Synthesis                 syntheses

Hypnosis                  hypnoses

Thesis                       theses

(C) Some  Greek nouns that end with ‘on’ —–>Their plural is formed by removing ‘on’ & adding ‘a’ .

singular                         plural

Criterion                      criteria

Phenomenon             phenomena

(9) The plurals of compound noun are formed by adding ‘s’ to the root word .

Singular                                          Plural

Brother-in-low                           brothers-in-low

step-brother                               step- brothers

Sister-in-low                             sisters-in-low

Step-sister                                 step-sisters

Maiservant                               maid-servants

Foot-mat                                  foot-men

Court-martial                          courts-martial

Passer -by                                 passers-by

Looker-on                                 lookers-on

Major-General                         Major-Generals

Governor-General                   Governors-Generals

Chief Minister                           Chief Ministers

Head Master                              Head Masters

Commander-in-Chief              Commanders-in-Chief

Engineer-in-Chief                    Engineers-in-Chief

(Note-I) Some compund nouns that end with ‘ful’ take ‘s’ and form their plurals .

Singular                          plural

Cupful                           cupfuls

Glassful                        glassfuls

Handful                        handfuls

Mouthful                      mouthfuls

Spoonful                       spoonfuls

 NOUN-6(NUMBER)-ENGLISH-ORSP

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