DECE2-Solution(ENGLISH)-IGNOU-DAY 5-ORSP

DECE2 DAY 5

Child Health And Nutrition(DECE2) IGNOU Unit Wise Solution Day 5(ENGLISH)

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Child Health And Nutrition(DECE2) IGNOU Unit Wise Solution Day 5(ENGLISH)

Contents
DECE2-Solution(ENGLISH)-IGNOU-DAY 5-ORSP
Chapters
Chapter-1 Introduction to Nutrition and Health
Unit 1    The Concept of Nutrition
Unit 2    The Concept of Health
Unit 3     Indicators of Health
Chapter-2  Basic Concepts in Nutrition
Unit 4 The Macronutrients-I: Carbohydrates And Water
Unit-5 The Macronutrients-II: Proteins and Fats
Unit-6 The Micronutrients-1 : Vitamins
Unit-7 The Micronutrients-II: Minerals
Unit-8 Planning Balanced Diets
Chapter-3 Nutrition and Health Care during Pregnancy and Lactation
Unit-9   Meal Planning for Pregnant and Lactating Women
Unit-10 Health Care during Pregnancy
Unit-11  Health Care during Intranatal and Postnatal Periods
Chapter-4 Nutrition and Health Care during Infancy and Early Childhood
Unit-12 Nutrition during Infancy
Unit-13 Nutrition during Early Childhood
Unit-14 Health Care of the Child
Chapter-5 Nutrition Related Disorders in Early Childhood
Unit-15 Major Deficiency Diseases – 1: PEM and Xerophthalmia
Unit-16 Major Deficiency Diseases – II: Anaemia and lodine Deficiency Disorders
Unit-17Other Nutritional Disorders
Chapter-6 Nutrition and Health Programmes
Unit-18 Major Nutrition Programme
Unit-19 Major Health Programme
Unit-20 Assessment of Nutritional Status
Chapter-7 Common Childhood Illnesses, Their Prevention and Management -1
Unit-21 Caring for the Sick Child I
Unit-22 Some Disorders of the Alimentary System
Unit-23 Some Disorders of the Respiratory System
Unit-24 Some Infections of the Mouth and Throat
Unit-25 Some Problems of the Eyes
Chapter-8 Commom Childhood illness,Their Prevention And Management 
Unit-26 Common Diseases of the Skin
Unit-27 Common Problems of the Bars
Unit-28 Fevers
Unit-29 Lumps and Swellings
Unit-30 First Aid
Child Health And Nutrition(DECE2) IGNOU Unit Wise Solution Day 5(ENGLISH)
Chapter-1
Introduction to Nutrition and Health
Before Going To Read DAy 3 Question PLease Read Day 1,2 click below
Child Health And Nutrition(DECE2) IGNOU Unit Wise Solution Day 5(ENGLISH)
DECE2-Solution(ENGLISH)-IGNOU-DAY 5-ORSP
Q9. Appreciate that health is a relative concept.( 5 mark)
Ans. Many consider positive health not as an ideal state, but as a “biologically
normal state based on statistical averages. For example, the height and weight
standards vary from country to country and state to state
and also between socio-
economic groups, but by and large this does not make one group biologically
inferior to the other. The average weight of a newborn baby in India is less than that
of a newborn child in developed countries. And yet, very often the Indian newborn
compares favorably in health to her western counterpart. Many persons with normal
appearance may have enlarged tonsils; abnormal X-rays, abnormal blood sugar or
high cholesterol levels and still not show any signs of ill-health. Thus, health is a
relative concept and health standards vary among cultures. This implies that instead
of setting universal health standards, each country or state should decide on its own
health norms for the given set of conditions, and look into ways for achieving that
level.
In this context, it is important to be aware of the concept of spectrum of health and
sickness. This concept denotes that the health of an individual is not static; it
undergoes continuous change. A person’s health may vary from optimum well-
being to varying levels of dysfunction. In fact, health and disease lie along a
continuum……
Positive health
Better health
Freedom from sickness
Unrecognised sickness
Mild sickness
Severe sickness
One end of this continuum corresponds to the WHO definition of positive health,
while the other end is serious illness. The transition from good health to bad health
is often gradual but it can be sudden also. The same holds good for recovery from
bad health to good. Thus, health is not a state that is arrived at for once and for all; it
is constantly changing. A person may be absolutely healthy today, but may be at a
diminished level of health tomorrow, or the other way round.
Q10. Enumerate some health indicators( 5 mark)
Ans.
Indicators are only an indication of a given situation or a reflection of that
situation. Per se, indicators of health are regarded as variables that help to
measure the changes in the health status. For instance, when we say that the
number of deaths in a particular village in 1980 and 1990 was 15 and 20
respectively, it conveys that more deaths took place in 1990. But if we measure this
event “death” as an indicator (crude death rate) of health status, we may find that
actually death rate has decreased over time. To understand this better, let us
continue with the above example. In 1980, 15 deaths were reported from a
particular village with a population of 3,000. Due to expansion of the neighbouring
township, the population of the village increased. In 1990, when 20 deaths were
reported, the population was 5,000.
When we calculate the death rate (details will be discussed in Sub-section 3.2.2), we
find that in 1980 the crude death rate was 5 per one thousand population whercas
in 1990 it was 4 per thousand. Similarly we can measure different variables that are
related to health and draw a conclusion about the health scenario of the locality.
However, in this context, it is important to point out that since there are problems in
defining health, there are also problems in measuring health. As you read in Unit 2,
it has not been possible to define health in precise, measurable terms. Further,
health is an end product of several variables and hence needs to be measured
multidimensionally. An assessment of the health status therefore cannot be made
using a single indicator; we necessarily need to use several indicators, which may
be classified as:
Mortality indicators
Morbidity indicators
Disability rates
Nutritional status indicators
Health care delivery indicators
Utilization rates
Indicators of social and mental health
Environmental indicators
Indicators of quality of life
Health policy indicators
Socio-economic indicators
Before we come to making a meaningful study of the various indicators of health,
let us take a look at the characteristics of an indicator.
Q11. Provide examples of morbidity and mortality from India( 5 mark)
Ans. These indicate the rates of deaths in various age groups and death due to
various reasons. There are various mortality indicators. Some of them
are discussed below.
a) Crude death rate (CDR)
It indicates the rate at which people are dying. Though ideally health should not be
measured in terms of number of deaths, this indicator is useful. This may be the
only information available about the health status of people, particularly in
developing countries i.e. this may be the only health indicator available.
Crude death rate is defined as the number of deaths in a year per 1,000 population,
and is calculated using the following formula :
(No. of deaths in a year/Mid-year population) x 1000This indicator is not a perfect measure for making a comparative study because it is
affected by the age-sex composition of the population. But still, we can compare
the health situation of an area over time by using this parameter.
b) Infant mortality rate (IMR)
It refers to the number of deaths of infants (below one year of age) in a year per
1,000 live births.
It is calculated by the formula.
(No.of deaths of children less than 1 year of age in a year/No. of live births in the same year)X 1,000Infant mortality rate (IMR) is one of the most accepted indicators of the health
status of a society.
Morbidity Indicators
Mortality indicators do not reveal the burden of ill-health in a community, for
example the prevalence of arthirilis, goitre or mental illness. Morbidity refers to
ill-health. Morbidity indicators supplement the mortality data in describing the
health status of a population. The main drawback of morbidity indicators is that
subclinical cases go unreported and are not taken into consideration. The clinical
cases in fact represent only a small percentage of the total morbidity spectrum. The
morbidity indicators used frequently are discussed below:
a) Incidence
Incidence refers to the occurrence of new cases in a specified population within a
specified time frame. It may be new episodes of the same disease like diarrhoca or
Child Health and Nutrition (DECE-2)
upper respiratory tract infections occurring in the same individual or new cases
suffering from a particular type of discase like typhoid or cholcra. When we say
incidence of a disease is 5 per thousand population for a particular year, it means
that in the given year, there have been 5 new cases of a particular disease among
every 1,000 people of the population at risk.Incidence Rate=(No. of new cases of specific discase during a given time period/Population at risk)
X 1,000b) Prevalence
Prevalence refers to the number of existing cases of a particular disease at one
point of time, in a defined population. In other words, it refers to the number of
persons suffering from a disease at the given point of time in the population. For
example, when we say that the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in India in
1994 is 1.6 per cent, it means that among every 1,000 people of the population,
there are 16 persons suffering from tuberculosis. This includes the cases diagnosed
in 1994 as well as those who were diagnosed earlier but have still not got cured.
c) Attendance rates at out-patient departments, health centres etc.
The morbidity pattern of the patients attending a health centre or the out-patient
department of a hospital indirectly reflects the morbidity pattern of these diseases
in the community. Though the figures do not strictly tally with the community
survey figures, this is an important source of information. Most of the morbidity
data of Indian population that are quoted in different forums belong to this
category.

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