Child Health And Nutrition(DECE2) IGNOU Unit Wise Solution Day 1(ENGLISH)

Child Health And Nutrition(DECE2) IGNOU Unit Wise Solution Day 1(ENGLISH)

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Child Health And Nutrition(DECE2) IGNOU Unit Wise Solution Day 1(ENGLISH)

Contents
Chapters
Chapter-1 Introduction to Nutrition and Health
Unit 1    The Concept of Nutrition
Unit 2    The Concept of Health
Unit 3     Indicators of Health
Chapter-2  Basic Concepts in Nutrition
Unit 4 The Macronutrients-I: Carbohydrates And Water
Unit-5 The Macronutrients-II: Proteins and Fats
Unit-6 The Micronutrients-1 : Vitamins
Unit-7 The Micronutrients-II: Minerals
Unit-8 Planning Balanced Diets
Chapter-3 Nutrition and Health Care during Pregnancy and Lactation
Unit-9   Meal Planning for Pregnant and Lactating Women
Unit-10 Health Care during Pregnancy
Unit-11  Health Care during Intranatal and Postnatal Periods
Chapter-4 Nutrition and Health Care during Infancy and Early Childhood
Unit-12 Nutrition during Infancy
Unit-13 Nutrition during Early Childhood
Unit-14 Health Care of the Child
Chapter-5 Nutrition Related Disorders in Early Childhood
Unit-15 Major Deficiency Diseases – 1: PEM and Xerophthalmia
Unit-16 Major Deficiency Diseases – II: Anaemia and lodine Deficiency Disorders
Unit-17Other Nutritional Disorders
Chapter-6 Nutrition and Health Programmes
Unit-18 Major Nutrition Programme
Unit-19 Major Health Programme
Unit-20 Assessment of Nutritional Status
Chapter-7 Common Childhood Illnesses, Their Prevention and Management -1
Unit-21 Caring for the Sick Child I
Unit-22 Some Disorders of the Alimentary System
Unit-23 Some Disorders of the Respiratory System
Unit-24 Some Infections of the Mouth and Throat
Unit-25 Some Problems of the Eyes
Chapter-8 Commom Childhood illness,Their Prevention And Management 
Unit-26 Common Diseases of the Skin
Unit-27 Common Problems of the Bars
Unit-28 Fevers
Unit-29 Lumps and Swellings
Unit-30 First Aid
Child Health And Nutrition(DECE2) IGNOU Unit Wise Solution Day 1(ENGLISH)
Chapter-1
Introduction to Nutrition and Health
Q1. Define the terms “food”, “nutrient” and “nutrition” (5 MARK)
Ans. FOOD: Food, substance consisting essentially of protein, carbohydrate, fat, and other
nutrients used in the body of an organism to sustain growth and vital processes and to
furnish energy. The absorption and utilization of food by the body is fundamental to
nutrition and is facilitated by digestion. Plants, which convert solar energy to food
by photosynthesis, are the primary food source. Animals that feed on plants often serve as
sources of food for other animals. To learn more about the sequence of transfers of matter
and energy in the form of food from organism to organism, see food chain.
Hunting and gathering, horticulture, pastoralism, and the development of
agriculture are the primary means by which humans have adapted to their
environments to feed themselves. Food has long served as a carrier of culture in
human societies and has been a driving force for globalization. This was especially
the case during the early phases of European trade and colonial expansion, when
foods such as the hot red pepper, corn (maize), and sweet potatoes spread
throughout Furope to Africa and Asia.
Nutrient: A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and
reproduce. The requirement for dietary nutrient intake applies to animals,
plants, fungi, and protists. Nutrients can be incorporated into cells for metabolic
purposes or excreted by cells to create non-cellular structures, such as
hair, scales, feathers, or exoskeletons. Some nutrients can be metabolically converted
to smaller molecules in the process of releasing energy, such as for
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and fermentation products (ethanol or vinegar),
leading to end-products of water and carbon dioxide. All organisms require water.
Essential nutrients for animals are the energy sources, some of the amino acids that
are combined to create proteins, a subset of fatty acids, vitamins and certain
minerals. Plants require more diverse minerals absorbed through roots, plus carbon
dioxide and oxygen absorbed through leaves. Fungi live on dead or living organic
matter and meet nutrient needs from their host. Different types of organism have
different essential nutrients. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is essential, meaning it
must be consumed in sufficient amounts, to humans and some other animal species,
but not to all animals and not to plants, which are able to
synthesize it. Nutrients may be organic or inorganic: organic compounds include
most compounds containing carbon, while all other chemicals are inorganic.
Inorganic nutrients include nutrients such as iron, selenium, and zinc, while organic
nutrients include, among many others, energy-providing compounds and vitamins.
Nutrition: Nutrition is the science that interprets the nutrients and other substances
in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an
organism. It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism
and excretion. The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the
availability and palatability of foods. For humans, a healthy diet includes
preparation of food and storage methods that preserve nutrients from oxidation,
heat or leaching, and that reduces risk of foodborne illnesses. The seven major
classes of human nutrients are carbohydrates, fats, fiber, minerals, proteins,
vitamins, and water. Nutrients can be grouped as either macronutrients or
micronutrients (needed in small quantities). in humans, an unhealthy diet
can cause deficiency-related diseases such as blindness, anemia, scurvy, preterm
birth, stillbirth and cretinism, or nutrient excess health-threatening conditions
such as obesity and metabolic syndrome; and such common chronic systemic
diseases as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Under nutrition
can lead to wasting in acute cases, and the stunting of
marasmus in chronic cases of malnutrition.
Child Health And Nutrition(DECE2) IGNOU Unit Wise Solution Day 1(ENGLISH)
Q2. List the functions of food.(5 MARK)
Ans. You are now familiar with the fact that food contains several nutrients. In fact,
there are over forty essential nutrients which are supplied by the food we eat.
These nutrients can be classified into the following major categories (based on
certain similar features): proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and water.
Water is important as a nutrient as well as a food.
Each of the nutrient categories has a specific physiological role to play. Here the term
“physiological role” refers to the role of nutrients and therefore of food in
maintaining certain specific body functions. Food also has social and psychological
functions in addition to physiological ones.
Physiological Functions: The physiological functions performed by food are the
energy-giving, body-building, protective and regulatory functions.
We need energy every moment of our lives for performing various activities such as
sitting, standing, walking, running, performing household work and other tasks.
Several activities take place within the body as well e.g. beating of the heart,
contraction of the intestines and expansion and contraction of the lungs, even
though we are not always aware of them. These too require expenditure of energy.
The energy-giving function of food is basically performed by two nutrient categories
Carbohydrates And Fats.
Food is also needed for growth and repair. You are already familiar with the term
growth”. It refers to an increase in size of the various parts of the body. How does
this growth come about? As you know, our body is made up of millions of units
called cells. When growth takes place, new cells are added to the existing ones.
The existing ones also increase in size. At the same time, cells do get worn out and
die. These cells have to be replaced. This process is called repair. For both growth
and repair, proteins are necessary. We can understand the role of proteins in growth
and development if we just think of the tremendous increase in height and weight
that occurs from infancy to adulthood.
The other major physiological functions performed by food are the protective and
regulatory functions. Let us talk about the meaning of the term “protective” first.
Here protective refers to the role of food in preventing infection by ensuring proper
functioning of the body systems responsible for fighting infections. Even if a person
does develop an infection or any other type of illness, food and the nutrients it
contains facilitate rapid recovery. A person eating a poor diet would take much
longer to recover. He would get ill more easily as well.
The regulatory function refers to the role of food in controlling body processes. As
you are aware, several processes take place in the body such as beating of heart,
maintenance of body temperature and contraction of muscles. Each of these
processes is controlled. Our body temperature, for example, is maintained at 98.4″F
or 37°C. Similarly, the rate at which the heart beats is also maintained. You are also
probably aware that several chemical reactions take place in the body.
With the help of these chemical reactions, complex substances are broken down into
their simpler components. Similarly, simpler substances are used to build more
complex substances. The rate at which these reactions proceed is carefully controlled
according to the need of the body. Vitamins and minerals contribute substantially to
both protective and regulatory functions. So do proteins and water.
Social Functions: Food has a significant social meaning, Sharing food with any other
person implies social acceptance. Earlier only persons enjoying equal status in
society ate together. A person would never share a meal with someone inferior to
him in social terms. Of course, we observe considerable change in this respect now,
particularly in cities and towns. In a restaurant, for example, any person can eat with
the others irrespective of his social background if he has the money to pay for the
food.
Food is an integral part of festivity anywhere in the world. You must have surely
noticed that joyous occasions such as the birth of a child or a marriage are celebrated
by giving feasts and serving delicacies. Festivals such as Diwali, Dussehra, Pongal,
Onam, Lohri, Holi, Christmas and Id are celebrated by having special and prescribed
menus. In all these cases, food serves the function of bringing people together.
food items such as fruits, sweets and coconuts are offered to the deity in temples.
Often sweets are prepared at temples and Gurudwaras and distributed to devotees
as a benediction or Prasad. Further, people of a given religious community share a
common eating pattern. This is because their religious texts and practices strongly
recommend some foods while rejecting others. Food thus becomes an integral part of
the social and religious life of people.
Child Health And Nutrition(DECE2) IGNOU Unit Wise Solution Day 1
Q3. Describe in simple terms how food is handled by the body.(4 MARK)
Ans. Handling of Food and Nutrients by the Body: How does the body handle
food? We take in food through our mouth where it is chewed and then swallowed. It
then passes down the esophagus into the stomach and thereafter into a long, coiled,
tube-like structure called the intestine. All this while, the nature of food is being
changed and it is being converted into utilizable forms. This process is called
digestion.
Once digestion is completed the nutrients, now available to the body in a form in
which it can use them, move from the intestine into the blood. This process is known
as absorption. The blood then transports these nutrients to all the cells of the body
where they are utilized for different functions.
Next DECE2 Chapter 1 Question 4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11  Comming Soon…..

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Child Health And Nutrition(DECE2) IGNOU Unit Wise Solution Day 1(ENGLISH)

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  • Pos.
    Name
    Score
    Duration
    Points
  • 1
    Monalisa Sahoo
    100 %
    39 s
    18
  • 2
    Yogismita Dash
    100 %
    48 s
    18
  • 3
    Shraddha Khatua
    100 %
    89 s
    18
  • 4
    Anupama Bag
    100 %
    93 s
    18
  • 5
    Archana Das
    98.19 %
    31.19 s
    17.69
  • 6
    Damayanti Mahanta
    94 %
    47 s
    17
  • 7
    Suchismita Mahanta
    94 %
    57 s
    17
  • 8
    Satyabati Naik
    94 %
    65 s
    17
  • 9
    Monalisa Bhuyan
    94 %
    71 s
    17
  • 10
    Janmenjay Mandal
    94 %
    206 s
    17
  • 11
    Pujalata Sandha
    85.5 %
    38.5 s
    15.5
  • 12
    Kalpana Behera
    83 %
    53 s
    15
  • 13
    ThomasinopyDO ThomasinopyDO
    83 %
    55 s
    15
  • 14
    Ajit MAHANTA
    83 %
    154 s
    15
  • 15
    Krishna Naik
    83 %
    281 s
    15
  • 16
    TAPASWINI NAIK
    83 %
    311 s
    15
  • 17
    Monalisa Das
    77 %
    153 s
    14
  • 18
    Panamani Sing
    77 %
    165 s
    14
  • 19
    Puspanjali Mohanta
    75.25 %
    30.5 s
    13.63
  • 20
    Rojalin Sahu
    75.2 %
    51.2 s
    13.6
  • 21
    Sonali Naik
    72 %
    112 s
    13
  • 22
    Girijarani Mohanta
    68 %
    61 s
    12.33
  • 23
    Dalimani Mahanta
    66 %
    86 s
    12
  • 24
    Sasmita Naik
    66 %
    86 s
    12
  • 25
    Runu Sau
    66 %
    161 s
    12
  • 26
    Arati Mohanty
    66 %
    190 s
    12
  • 27
    Priscilla Lakra
    55 %
    145.5 s
    10
  • 28
    Puspanjali Giri
    50 %
    161 s
    9
  • 29
    Sandhyarani Mahala
    44 %
    266 s
    8
  • 30
    Ajaya Mandal
    42 %
    519.6 s
    7
  • 31
    Niharbala Mohanta
    41 %
    96.5 s
    7.5
  • 32
    Bishnupriya Moharana
    38 %
    130 s
    7
  • 33
    Tamanna Pattanayak
    38 %
    208 s
    7
  • 34
    snehalata Pradhan
    38 %
    307.5 s
    7
  • 35
    Sujata Maharana
    33 %
    241 s
    6
  • 36
    Jhuna Das
    27 %
    29 s
    5
  • 37
    Mamata Jena
    0 %
    12 s
    0

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