DECE1 Unit 2(Important Questions)-IGNOU-ORSP


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2.1 Introduction

2.2. Scope of Child Development

  • 2.2.1 Development and Growth
  • 2.2.2 Stages of Development
  • 2.2.3 Areas of Development

2.3 Importance of the Study of Child Development

  • 2.3.1 Describing Universal Patterns of Development
  • 2.32 Explaining Individual Differences in Development
  • 2.3.3 Understanding Human Behavior
  • 23.4 Application Day-to-Day Interactions with Children

2.4 Importance of Infancy and Early Childhood

Check Your Progress Exercise 1

1) Explain the meaning of the term ‘Child Development in the space provided below.

1)नीचे दिए गए स्थान में ‘बाल विकास’ शब्द का अर्थ स्पष्ट करें

1)ନିମ୍ନରେ ପ୍ରଦତ୍ତ ସ୍ଥାନରେ ‘ଶିଶୁ ବିକାଶ’ ଶବ୍ଦର ଅର୍ଥ ବ୍ୟାଖ୍ୟା କର

Child development can be defined as the process by which a child changes over time. It covers the whole period from conception to an individual becoming a fully functioning adult. It’s a journey from total dependence to full independence.

Child development incorporates, physical growth as well as intellectual, language, emotional and social development

Stages of Child Devlopment

  • Infancy(0-2 year)
  • Early childhood(2-6 years)
  • Middle childhood (6-12 years)
  • Adolescence (12-18 years)
  • Adulthood(18 Years Onward)

Infancy(0-2 year)

  • The period from birth to two years of age is referred to as the period of Infancy.
  • In this period the child is totally dependent on the caregiver for the fulfilment of her needs.
  • After birth, this is the period of most rapid growth and development.
  • The child’s skills and abilities increase.
  • By the end of infancy, she is able to walk, run, communicate her needs verbally, feed herself, identify family members, recognize herself and venture confidently in familiar surroundings  and Confidently exploring the world around her .

Early childhood(2-6 years) & Middle childhood (6-12 years)

  • The period of childhood is from two to twelve years of age.
  • Development at this stage is not as rapid as during infancy.
  • During this period the child refines the skills she has acquired during infancy and learns new skills as well.
  • This is the period when coordination of the parts of the body improves.
  • During childhood she also learns the ways of behaviour that are considered appropriate by the society.
  • The child meets many people outside the family and forms attachments with more people.
  • As the child grows and her thinking capacities mature, she realizes that she can do many things.
  • She can play on a swing, make a house from sand, draw, paint or sing a song.
  • This gives her a feeling of confidence.
  • During this period she becomes more independent though adult guidance is constantly needed.

The period of childhood is divided into two stages:

  • Early childhood(2-6 years)
  • Middle childhood (6-12 years)

The period of early childhood is also referred to as the preschool age because at this age the child is learning skills that will help her to do tasks associated with schooling.

The preschooler has mastered the words to ask questions about things and people. She learns about numbers, colours, shapes and the reasons for everyday events.

They enjoy playing games that require them to pretend and make-believe.

Preschoolers cannot play together for long.

After some time they start playing independently again, though they may be with each other.

Early Childhood Education - Importance And Benefits

  • The child in the age group 6-12 years has matured a great deal and is expected to behave more responsibly than the preschooler.
  • Parental expectations of the child increase. The child moves out of the home to help the family members in their work and may even go to school all by herself.
  • Middle childhood is the period when the child becomes involved in learning skills that will help her to take up a vocation later on.
  • The child’s store of information grows at a fast pace.
  • Her thinking develops rapidly and her interest in the outside world .
  • There is active interaction with children of the same age.
  • They are able to cooperate with each other during play and are able to follow the rules of the game. Playing team games is a development of this period.

Middle Childhood - JackAttackHDEV1

Adolescence (12-18 years)

  • The next stage is referred to as the period of adolescence (12-18 yrs.)
  • The beginning of this period is marked by puberty.
  • Puberty refers to the stage around 11-14 years of age when there is a spurt in physical growth.
  • This results in a rapid increase in height and weight and the emergence of secondary sexual characteristics. Examples of these are the development of facial hair in boys and the development of breasts in girls.
  • The onset of puberty is carlier for girls than for boys.
  • These rapid physical changes lead to a need for emotional readjustment.
  • At this age the peer group becomes very important and the adolescent follows the rules  and the codes of her group.
  •  During adolescence thinking develops further and becomes more complex.
  • The individual can understand and deal with varied situations.
  • She can think of abstract problems and work out their solutions.
  •  All this helps her to prepare for the roles and responsibilities she will be expected to carry out as an adult.

Adulthood(18 Years Onward)

  • After the age of 18 years the person is referred to as an adult.
  • There may be different criteria for considering a person an adult.
  • One may be the ability to support oneself economically and another may be getting married and starting a family.
  • But individuals from some families continue to remain financially dependent on their parents till early twenties. In others, both marriage and work may have to be taken up before adulthood.
  • There are also social and legal definitions of adulthood. For example, an Indian can vote in the elections at eighteen years. Legally, girls may get married at 18 years and boys at 21 years of age.
  • However, adulthood typically involves either working or preparing for one’s livelihood.
  • By now physical changes are complete and the person is mature.
  • It is important to remember that these divisions of the life span are not rigid.
  • It is not as if the child suddenly changes from an infant to a preschooler or from a child to an adolescent.
  • Change is a gradual and continuous process and transition from one phase of life to another will be different for every individual.

Ans– बाल विकास को उस प्रक्रिया के रूप में परिभाषित किया जा सकता है जिसके द्वारा एक बच्चा समय के साथ बदलता है। इसमें गर्भाधान से लेकर पूरी तरह से काम करने वाले वयस्क बनने तक की पूरी अवधि शामिल है। यह कुल निर्भरता से पूर्ण स्वतंत्रता तक की यात्रा है।

बाल विकास में शारीरिक विकास के साथ-साथ बौद्धिक, भाषा, भावनात्मक और सामाजिक विकास शामिल हैं

बाल देवलाप का मंचन

इन्फेंसी (0-2 वर्ष)
प्रारंभिक बचपन (2-6 वर्ष)
मध्य बचपन (6-12 वर्ष)
किशोरावस्था (12-18 वर्ष)
वयस्कता (18 वर्ष बाद)

शैशवावस्था (0-2 वर्ष)

जन्म से दो वर्ष की आयु तक की अवधि को शैशव काल कहा जाता है।
इस अवधि में बच्चा अपनी जरूरतों की पूर्ति के लिए पूरी तरह से देखभाल करने वाले पर निर्भर होता है।
जन्म के बाद, यह सबसे तेज वृद्धि और विकास की अवधि है।
बच्चे के कौशल और क्षमताओं में वृद्धि होती है।
शैशवावस्था के अंत तक, वह चलने, दौड़ने, अपनी जरूरतों को मौखिक रूप से संप्रेषित करने, खुद को खिलाने, परिवार के सदस्यों की पहचान करने, खुद को पहचानने और परिचित परिवेश में आत्मविश्वास से उद्यम करने और आत्मविश्वास से अपने आसपास की दुनिया की खोज करने में सक्षम है।

प्रारंभिक बचपन (2-6 वर्ष) और मध्य बचपन (6-12 वर्ष)

बचपन की अवधि दो से बारह वर्ष की आयु तक होती है।
इस अवस्था में विकास उतनी तीव्र गति से नहीं होता जितना शैशवावस्था में होता है।
इस अवधि के दौरान बच्चा शैशवावस्था में हासिल किए गए कौशल को परिष्कृत करता है और नए कौशल भी सीखता है।
यह वह अवधि है जब शरीर के अंगों के समन्वय में सुधार होता है।
बचपन के दौरान वह व्यवहार के उन तरीकों को भी सीखती है जो समाज द्वारा उपयुक्त माने जाते हैं।
बच्चा परिवार के बाहर कई लोगों से मिलता है और अधिक लोगों से जुड़ाव बनाता है।
जैसे-जैसे बच्चा बड़ा होता है और उसकी सोचने की क्षमता परिपक्व होती है, उसे पता चलता है कि वह बहुत कुछ कर सकती है।
वह झूले पर खेल सकती है, रेत से घर बना सकती है, चित्र बना सकती है, पेंट कर सकती है या गाना गा सकती है।
इससे उसे आत्मविश्वास का अहसास होता है।
इस अवधि के दौरान वह अधिक स्वतंत्र हो जाती है, हालांकि वयस्क मार्गदर्शन की लगातार आवश्यकता होती है।

बचपन की अवधि को दो चरणों में विभाजित किया गया है:

प्रारंभिक बचपन (2-6 वर्ष)
मध्य बचपन (6-12 वर्ष)

प्रारंभिक बचपन की अवधि को पूर्वस्कूली उम्र भी कहा जाता है क्योंकि इस उम्र में बच्चा कौशल सीख रहा है जो उसे स्कूली शिक्षा से जुड़े कार्यों को करने में मदद करेगा।

प्रीस्कूलर को चीजों और लोगों के बारे में सवाल पूछने के लिए शब्दों में महारत हासिल है। वह संख्या, रंग, आकार और रोजमर्रा की घटनाओं के कारणों के बारे में सीखती है।

वे ऐसे खेल खेलना पसंद करते हैं जिनमें उन्हें दिखावा करने और विश्वास करने की आवश्यकता होती है।

पूर्वस्कूली लंबे समय तक एक साथ नहीं खेल सकते हैं।

कुछ समय बाद वे फिर से स्वतंत्र रूप से खेलना शुरू करते हैं, हालांकि वे एक दूसरे के साथ हो सकते हैं।

6-12 वर्ष के आयु वर्ग का बच्चा काफी परिपक्व हो गया है और उससे प्रीस्कूलर की तुलना में अधिक जिम्मेदारी से व्यवहार करने की उम्मीद की जाती है।
संतान से माता-पिता की अपेक्षाएं बढ़ती हैं। बच्चा अपने काम में परिवार के सदस्यों की मदद करने के लिए घर से बाहर चला जाता है और यहां तक ​​कि अकेले स्कूल भी जा सकता है।
मध्य बचपन वह अवधि है जब बच्चा सीखने के कौशल में शामिल हो जाता है जो उसे बाद में एक व्यवसाय करने में मदद करेगा।
बच्चे की जानकारी का भंडार तेज गति से बढ़ता है।
उसकी सोच तेजी से विकसित होती है और बाहरी दुनिया में उसकी रुचि होती है।
एक ही उम्र के बच्चों के साथ सक्रिय बातचीत होती है।
वे खेल के दौरान एक दूसरे का सहयोग करने में सक्षम होते हैं और खेल के नियमों का पालन करने में सक्षम होते हैं। टीम गेम खेलना इस अवधि का विकास है।

किशोरावस्था (12-18 वर्ष)

अगले चरण को किशोरावस्था (12-18 वर्ष) की अवधि के रूप में जाना जाता है।
इस अवधि की शुरुआत यौवन द्वारा चिह्नित है।
यौवन लगभग 11-14 वर्ष की अवस्था को संदर्भित करता है जब शारीरिक विकास में तेजी आती है।
इसके परिणामस्वरूप ऊंचाई और वजन में तेजी से वृद्धि होती है और माध्यमिक यौन विशेषताओं का उदय होता है। लड़कों में चेहरे के बालों का विकास और लड़कियों में स्तनों का विकास इसके उदाहरण हैं।
यौवन की शुरुआत लड़कों की तुलना में लड़कियों के लिए अधिक कठिन होती है।
इन तीव्र शारीरिक परिवर्तनों से भावनात्मक समायोजन की आवश्यकता होती है।
इस उम्र में साथियों का समूह बहुत महत्वपूर्ण हो जाता है और किशोर अपने समूह के नियमों और कोड का पालन करता है।
किशोरावस्था के दौरान सोच और विकसित होती है और अधिक जटिल हो जाती है।
व्यक्ति विभिन्न स्थितियों को समझ सकता है और उनसे निपट सकता है।
वह अमूर्त समस्याओं के बारे में सोच सकती है और उनका समाधान निकाल सकती है।
यह सब उसे उन भूमिकाओं और जिम्मेदारियों के लिए तैयार करने में मदद करता है जिनसे उसे एक वयस्क के रूप में निभाने की उम्मीद की जाएगी।

वयस्कता(18 वर्ष आगे)

18 वर्ष की आयु के बाद व्यक्ति को वयस्क कहा जाता है।
किसी व्यक्ति को वयस्क मानने के लिए अलग-अलग मानदंड हो सकते हैं।
एक हो सकता है आर्थिक रूप से खुद को सहारा देने की क्षमता और दूसरा शादी करना और परिवार शुरू करना।
लेकिन कुछ परिवारों के व्यक्ति बीस साल की उम्र तक अपने माता-पिता पर आर्थिक रूप से निर्भर रहते हैं। दूसरों में, शादी और काम दोनों को वयस्कता से पहले करना पड़ सकता है।
वयस्कता की सामाजिक और कानूनी परिभाषाएँ भी हैं। उदाहरण के लिए, एक भारतीय अठारह वर्ष की आयु में चुनाव में मतदान कर सकता है। कानूनी तौर पर लड़कियों की शादी 18 साल और लड़कों की 21 साल की उम्र में हो सकती है।
हालांकि, वयस्कता में आमतौर पर या तो काम करना या अपनी आजीविका के लिए तैयारी करना शामिल होता है।
अब तक शारीरिक परिवर्तन पूर्ण हो चुके हैं और व्यक्ति परिपक्व हो चुका है।
यह याद रखना महत्वपूर्ण है कि जीवन काल के ये विभाजन कठोर नहीं होते हैं।
ऐसा नहीं है कि बच्चा अचानक शिशु से प्रीस्कूलर या बच्चे से किशोर में बदल जाता है।
परिवर्तन एक क्रमिक और सतत प्रक्रिया है और जीवन के एक चरण से दूसरे चरण में संक्रमण प्रत्येक व्यक्ति के लिए अलग होगा।

2) Read the sentences given below carefully and fill in appropriate words in the blank

a) Development implies …………………… as well as …………………… changes while
growth refers only to changes that can be ……………………………..


b)The three main characteristics of changes that can be termed development are
……………………………… ,  …………………………….. and ………………………………

Ans. Orderly, Progressive,Long Lasting.

a) विकास का तात्पर्य …………………… साथ ही ……………… है। ….. जबकि बदल जाता है
विकास केवल उन परिवर्तनों को संदर्भित करता है जो …………………………… हो सकते हैं।

Ans.Quantitative, गुणात्मक, मापा

b) विकास की तीन मुख्य विशेषताएं जिन्हें विकास कहा जा सकता है
……………………………………………। …………………. तथा ……………………… ………

उत्तर:। अर्दली, प्रोग्रेसिव, लॉन्ग लास्टिंग।

3) Fill in the blanks with appropriate words
a) After birth, infancy is the period of ……………………………….. growth.

Ans-Most Rapid

b) The period of childhood is divided into preschool years spanning ………….. to ……….
years and middle childhood spanning …………………………….. to …………………………….. years.

Ans- 2,6  And 6,12

C) …………………………….. is characterized by the appearance of secondary sexual

Ans- Adolescence

a) जन्म के बाद, शैशवावस्था ………………………………… वृद्धि का काल है।

Ans- सबसे तेज

b) बचपन की अवधि को पूर्वस्कूली वर्षों में विभाजित किया जाता है …………… से ………।
वर्षों और मध्य बचपन में फैले …………………………….. से …….. …………………….. वर्षों।

Ans- 2,6 और 6,12

ग) ………………………………… माध्यमिक यौन की उपस्थिति की विशेषता है

Ans- किशोरावस्था

Exercise – 2

1) The following are some examples of children’s behaviour. Under what areas of
development would you categorize them? Write in the space provided below.
a) “The child is able to hit a ball with a bat.(Moter Devlopment)
b) The child of five years of age begins to understand why a sune sinks and a
blade of grass floats on water.(Congitive Devlopment)
C)The child shares toys with friends (Social devlopment)
d) The four year old child can recognize colours.(congnitive Devlopment)
e) The child becomes taller with age. (Physical Devlopment)
f) The child greets People whom she meets.(Social Devlopment)
g) The Child Learns names of objects(Language Devlopment)
Check Your Progress Exercise 3
Read the following questions carefully and answer in the space provided below.
1) Define the term ‘Norms of Development
विकास के मानदंड को परिभाषित करें
‘ବିକାଶର ଆଦର୍ଶ’ ଶବ୍ଦକୁ ବ୍ୟାଖ୍ୟା କରନ୍ତୁ |
Developmental norms are defined as standards by which the progress of a child’s development can be measured. For example, the average age at which a child walks, learns to talk, or reaches puberty would be such a standard and would be used to judge whether the child is progressing normally. Norms have also been used as a basis for the “ages and stages” approach to understanding child development
विकासात्मक मानदंडों को उन मानकों के रूप में परिभाषित किया जाता है जिनके द्वारा बच्चे के विकास की प्रगति को मापा जा सकता है। उदाहरण के लिए, औसत आयु जिस पर एक बच्चा चलता है, बात करना सीखता है, या यौवन तक पहुंचता है, ऐसा मानक होगा और यह निर्धारित करने के लिए उपयोग किया जाएगा कि क्या बच्चा सामान्य रूप से प्रगति कर रहा है। बाल विकास को समझने के लिए “उम्र और चरणों” के दृष्टिकोण के आधार के रूप में भी मानदंड का उपयोग किया गया है
ବିକାଶମୂଳକ ମାନକକୁ ମାନକ ଭାବରେ ବ୍ୟାଖ୍ୟା କରାଯାଇଛି ଯାହା ଦ୍ a ାରା ଶିଶୁର ବିକାଶର ଅଗ୍ରଗତି ମାପ କରାଯାଇପାରେ | ଉଦାହରଣ ସ୍ .ରୁପ, ହାରାହାରି ବୟସ ଯେଉଁଥିରେ ପିଲା ଚାଲିଥାଏ, କଥା ହେବାକୁ ଶିଖେ, କିମ୍ବା ଯ p ବନାବସ୍ଥାରେ ପହଞ୍ଚେ, ତାହା ଏକ ମାନକ ହେବ ଏବଂ ପିଲାଟି ସାଧାରଣ ଭାବରେ ଅଗ୍ରଗତି କରୁଛି କି ନାହିଁ ତାହା ବିଚାର କରିବା ପାଇଁ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହେବ | ଶିଶୁମାନଙ୍କର ବିକାଶକୁ ବୁ understanding ିବା ପାଇଁ “ବୟସ ଏବଂ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟ” ଆଭିମୁଖ୍ୟ ପାଇଁ ମଧ୍ୟ ଏକ ଆଧାର ଭାବରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୋଇଛି |
2) State how the study of Child Development will be useful to you.
बताएं कि बाल विकास का अध्ययन आपके लिए कैसे उपयोगी होगा
बताइए कि बाल विकास का अध्ययन आपके लिए किस प्रकार उपयोगी होगा।

Studying child development can be useful in several ways, some of which are:

  1. Understanding children better: Child development provides insights into the physical, cognitive, social, and emotional changes that children undergo from birth to adolescence. This knowledge can help you understand children better and respond appropriately to their needs, behaviors, and developmental milestones.

  2. Promoting healthy development: Understanding child development can help you identify risk factors that may affect children’s development and take steps to promote healthy growth and development. For example, you can create a nurturing environment that supports children’s physical, emotional, and cognitive needs, or provide appropriate interventions for children who may be struggling.

  3. Enhancing relationships: Knowing about child development can help you build positive relationships with children and their families. By understanding children’s developmental needs and capabilities, you can tailor your interactions to promote positive interactions, communication, and understanding.

  4. Supporting education and career goals: Knowledge of child development is essential for professionals who work with children, such as educators, psychologists, social workers, and healthcare professionals. Understanding child development can help you design effective programs, interventions, and services that meet the needs of children and families.

In summary, studying child development can be useful in promoting healthy development, enhancing relationships, and supporting educational and career goals. It can also provide a better understanding of children and their needs, which can lead to more fulfilling and effective interactions with them.

बाल विकास का अध्ययन कई तरह से उपयोगी हो सकता है, जिनमें से कुछ इस प्रकार हैं:

बच्चों को बेहतर ढंग से समझना: बाल विकास उन शारीरिक, संज्ञानात्मक, सामाजिक और भावनात्मक परिवर्तनों की अंतर्दृष्टि प्रदान करता है, जिनसे बच्चे जन्म से लेकर किशोरावस्था तक गुजरते हैं। यह ज्ञान आपको बच्चों को बेहतर ढंग से समझने और उनकी जरूरतों, व्यवहारों और विकासात्मक मील के पत्थर पर उचित प्रतिक्रिया देने में मदद कर सकता है।

स्वस्थ विकास को बढ़ावा देना: बाल विकास को समझना आपको उन जोखिम कारकों की पहचान करने में मदद कर सकता है जो बच्चों के विकास को प्रभावित कर सकते हैं और स्वस्थ विकास और विकास को बढ़ावा देने के लिए कदम उठा सकते हैं। उदाहरण के लिए, आप एक पोषण पर्यावरण बना सकते हैं जो बच्चों की शारीरिक, भावनात्मक और संज्ञानात्मक आवश्यकताओं का समर्थन करता है, या संघर्ष कर रहे बच्चों के लिए उचित हस्तक्षेप प्रदान कर सकता है।

रिश्तों को बढ़ाना: बाल विकास के बारे में जानने से आपको बच्चों और उनके परिवारों के साथ सकारात्मक संबंध बनाने में मदद मिल सकती है। बच्चों की विकास संबंधी जरूरतों और क्षमताओं को समझकर, आप सकारात्मक बातचीत, संचार और समझ को बढ़ावा देने के लिए अपनी बातचीत को अनुकूलित कर सकते हैं।

शिक्षा और कैरियर के लक्ष्यों का समर्थन करना: बच्चों के साथ काम करने वाले पेशेवरों, जैसे कि शिक्षक, मनोवैज्ञानिक, सामाजिक कार्यकर्ता और स्वास्थ्य देखभाल पेशेवर के लिए बाल विकास का ज्ञान आवश्यक है। बाल विकास को समझने से आपको बच्चों और परिवारों की जरूरतों को पूरा करने वाले प्रभावी कार्यक्रमों, हस्तक्षेपों और सेवाओं को डिजाइन करने में मदद मिल सकती है।

संक्षेप में, बाल विकास का अध्ययन स्वस्थ विकास को बढ़ावा देने, रिश्तों को बढ़ाने और शैक्षिक और कैरियर के लक्ष्यों का समर्थन करने में उपयोगी हो सकता है। यह बच्चों और उनकी जरूरतों की बेहतर समझ भी प्रदान कर सकता है, जिससे उनके साथ अधिक पूर्ण और प्रभावी बातचीत हो सकती है।

ଶିଶୁ ବିକାଶ ଅଧ୍ୟୟନ ବିଭିନ୍ନ ଉପାୟରେ ଉପଯୋଗୀ ହୋଇପାରେ, ଯାହା ମଧ୍ୟରୁ କେତେକ ହେଉଛି:

ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କୁ ଭଲ ଭାବରେ ବୁ: ିବା: ଶିଶୁ ବିକାଶ ଶାରୀରିକ, ଜ୍ଞାନଗତ, ସାମାଜିକ ଏବଂ ଭାବଗତ ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନଗୁଡ଼ିକ ବିଷୟରେ ସୂଚନା ପ୍ରଦାନ କରେ ଯାହା ପିଲାମାନେ ଜନ୍ମରୁ ଯୁବାବସ୍ଥାରେ ଗତି କରନ୍ତି | ଏହି ଜ୍ଞାନ ଆପଣଙ୍କୁ ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କୁ ଭଲ ଭାବରେ ବୁ understand ିବାରେ ସାହାଯ୍ୟ କରିପାରିବ ଏବଂ ସେମାନଙ୍କର ଆବଶ୍ୟକତା, ଆଚରଣ ଏବଂ ବିକାଶ ମାଇଲଖୁଣ୍ଟକୁ ଉପଯୁକ୍ତ ଭାବରେ ପ୍ରତିକ୍ରିୟା କରିବ |

ସୁସ୍ଥ ବିକାଶକୁ ପ୍ରୋତ୍ସାହିତ କରିବା: ଶିଶୁ ବିକାଶକୁ ବୁ standing ିବା ଆପଣଙ୍କୁ ବିପଦ କାରଣଗୁଡିକ ଚିହ୍ନଟ କରିବାରେ ସାହାଯ୍ୟ କରିଥାଏ ଯାହାକି ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କର ବିକାଶ ଉପରେ ପ୍ରଭାବ ପକାଇପାରେ ଏବଂ ସୁସ୍ଥ ଅଭିବୃଦ୍ଧି ଏବଂ ବିକାଶ ପାଇଁ ପଦକ୍ଷେପ ଗ୍ରହଣ କରିପାରିବ | ଉଦାହରଣ ସ୍ୱରୂପ, ଆପଣ ଏକ ପୋଷଣ ପରିବେଶ ସୃଷ୍ଟି କରିପାରିବେ ଯାହା ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କର ଶାରୀରିକ, ଭାବପ୍ରବଣ ଏବଂ ଜ୍ଞାନଗତ ଆବଶ୍ୟକତାକୁ ସମର୍ଥନ କରେ, କିମ୍ବା ସଂଘର୍ଷ କରୁଥିବା ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ଉପଯୁକ୍ତ ହସ୍ତକ୍ଷେପ ଯୋଗାଇଥାଏ |

ସମ୍ପର୍କ ବୃଦ୍ଧି: ଶିଶୁ ବିକାଶ ବିଷୟରେ ଜାଣିବା ଆପଣଙ୍କୁ ପିଲା ଏବଂ ସେମାନଙ୍କ ପରିବାର ସହିତ ସକରାତ୍ମକ ସମ୍ପର୍କ ଗ help ିବାରେ ସାହାଯ୍ୟ କରିଥାଏ | ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କର ବିକାଶ ଆବଶ୍ୟକତା ଏବଂ ସାମର୍ଥ୍ୟକୁ ବୁ By ି, ସକରାତ୍ମକ ପାରସ୍ପରିକ କଥାବାର୍ତ୍ତା, ଯୋଗାଯୋଗ ଏବଂ ବୁ understanding ାମଣାକୁ ପ୍ରୋତ୍ସାହିତ କରିବା ପାଇଁ ତୁମେ ତୁମର ପାରସ୍ପରିକ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକୁ ସଜାଡି ପାରିବ |

ଶିକ୍ଷା ଏବଂ ବୃତ୍ତି ଲକ୍ଷ୍ୟକୁ ସମର୍ଥନ କରିବା: ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କ ସହିତ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରୁଥିବା ବୃତ୍ତିଗତମାନଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ଶିଶୁ ବିକାଶ ବିଷୟରେ ଜ୍ଞାନ ଜରୁରୀ ଅଟେ, ଯେପରିକି ଶିକ୍ଷାବିତ୍, ମନୋବିଜ୍ଞାନୀ, ସାମାଜିକ କର୍ମୀ ଏବଂ ସ୍ୱାସ୍ଥ୍ୟ ସେବା ବୃତ୍ତିଗତ | ଶିଶୁ ବିକାଶକୁ ବୁ you ିବା ଆପଣଙ୍କୁ ପ୍ରଭାବଶାଳୀ ପ୍ରୋଗ୍ରାମ, ହସ୍ତକ୍ଷେପ, ଏବଂ ସେବା ଡିଜାଇନ୍ କରିବାରେ ସାହାଯ୍ୟ କରିଥାଏ ଯାହାକି ଶିଶୁ ଏବଂ ପରିବାରର ଆବଶ୍ୟକତା ପୂରଣ କରେ |

ସଂକ୍ଷେପରେ, ଶିଶୁ ବିକାଶକୁ ଅଧ୍ୟୟନ କରିବା ସୁସ୍ଥ ବିକାଶକୁ ପ୍ରୋତ୍ସାହିତ କରିବା, ସମ୍ପର୍କ ବ ancing ାଇବା ଏବଂ ଶିକ୍ଷାଗତ ତଥା ବୃତ୍ତି ଲକ୍ଷ୍ୟକୁ ସମର୍ଥନ କରିବାରେ ଉପଯୋଗୀ ହୋଇପାରେ | ଏହା ମଧ୍ୟ ଶିଶୁ ଏବଂ ସେମାନଙ୍କର ଆବଶ୍ୟକତା ବିଷୟରେ ଏକ ଉତ୍ତମ ବୁ understanding ାମଣା ପ୍ରଦାନ କରିପାରିବ, ଯାହା ସେମାନଙ୍କ ସହିତ ଅଧିକ ପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ଏବଂ ପ୍ରଭାବଶାଳୀ ପାରସ୍ପରିକ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକଳାପକୁ ନେଇପାରେ |

3. Give three reasons for the importance of the periods of infancy and early childhood

शैशवकाल और प्रारंभिक बाल्यकाल के महत्व के तीन कारण दीजिए

ଶିଶୁ ଏବଂ ବାଲ୍ୟକାଳର ମହତ୍ତ୍ୱ ପାଇଁ ତିନୋଟି କାରଣ ଦିଅ |

There are several reasons for the importance of the periods of infancy and early childhood. Here are three:

  1. Rapid development: The periods of infancy and early childhood are marked by rapid physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development. During this time, children acquire important skills and abilities that form the foundation for later development. For example, infants develop their motor skills, language, and cognitive abilities, while young children develop their social skills, emotional regulation, and self-concept.

  2. Critical period for brain development: The periods of infancy and early childhood are a critical period for brain development. The brain undergoes significant growth and rewiring during this time, and experiences during this period can have long-term effects on brain development and functioning. Positive experiences, such as nurturing and responsive caregiving, can promote healthy brain development, while negative experiences, such as neglect or abuse, can impair brain development and have negative consequences for later development.

  3. Long-term outcomes: The experiences and skills acquired during the periods of infancy and early childhood can have long-term effects on later development and outcomes. For example, research has shown that high-quality early childhood education can lead to better academic achievement, social competence, and mental health outcomes in later life. Similarly, negative experiences during early childhood, such as poverty, trauma, or chronic stress, can have negative effects on later development and outcomes.

In summary, the periods of infancy and early childhood are important because they mark a critical period for rapid development, brain development, and long-term outcomes. Investing in early childhood development can promote positive outcomes for children, families, and communities.

शैशवावस्था और प्रारंभिक बाल्यावस्था की अवधियों के महत्व के कई कारण हैं। यहाँ तीन हैं:

तेजी से विकास: शैशवावस्था और प्रारंभिक बचपन की अवधि को तेजी से शारीरिक, संज्ञानात्मक, सामाजिक और भावनात्मक विकास द्वारा चिह्नित किया जाता है। इस समय के दौरान, बच्चे महत्वपूर्ण कौशल और क्षमताएं प्राप्त करते हैं जो बाद के विकास की नींव बनाते हैं। उदाहरण के लिए, शिशु अपने मोटर कौशल, भाषा और संज्ञानात्मक क्षमताओं का विकास करते हैं, जबकि छोटे बच्चे अपने सामाजिक कौशल, भावनात्मक विनियमन और आत्म-अवधारणा विकसित करते हैं।

मस्तिष्क के विकास के लिए महत्वपूर्ण अवधि: शैशवावस्था और प्रारंभिक बचपन की अवधि मस्तिष्क के विकास के लिए एक महत्वपूर्ण अवधि होती है। इस समय के दौरान मस्तिष्क महत्वपूर्ण विकास और पुनर्जीवन से गुजरता है, और इस अवधि के दौरान अनुभव मस्तिष्क के विकास और कार्यप्रणाली पर दीर्घकालिक प्रभाव डाल सकते हैं। सकारात्मक अनुभव, जैसे पोषण और उत्तरदायी देखभाल, स्वस्थ मस्तिष्क के विकास को बढ़ावा दे सकते हैं, जबकि नकारात्मक अनुभव, जैसे उपेक्षा या दुर्व्यवहार, मस्तिष्क के विकास को कम कर सकते हैं और बाद के विकास के लिए नकारात्मक परिणाम हो सकते हैं।

दीर्घकालिक परिणाम: शैशवावस्था और प्रारंभिक बचपन की अवधि के दौरान प्राप्त किए गए अनुभव और कौशल बाद के विकास और परिणामों पर दीर्घकालिक प्रभाव डाल सकते हैं। उदाहरण के लिए, शोध से पता चला है कि उच्च गुणवत्ता वाली प्रारंभिक बचपन की शिक्षा बाद के जीवन में बेहतर शैक्षणिक उपलब्धि, सामाजिक क्षमता और मानसिक स्वास्थ्य के परिणाम दे सकती है। इसी तरह, प्रारंभिक बचपन के दौरान नकारात्मक अनुभव, जैसे गरीबी, आघात, या दीर्घकालिक तनाव, बाद के विकास और परिणामों पर नकारात्मक प्रभाव डाल सकते हैं।

संक्षेप में, शैशवावस्था और प्रारंभिक बचपन महत्वपूर्ण हैं क्योंकि वे तेजी से विकास, मस्तिष्क के विकास और दीर्घकालिक परिणामों के लिए एक महत्वपूर्ण अवधि को चिह्नित करते हैं। प्रारंभिक बचपन के विकास में निवेश करने से बच्चों, परिवारों और समुदायों के लिए सकारात्मक परिणामों को बढ़ावा मिल सकता है।

ଶିଶୁ ଏବଂ ବାଲ୍ୟକାଳର ମହତ୍ତ୍ for ର ଅନେକ କାରଣ ଅଛି | ଏଠାରେ ତିନୋଟି ଅଛି:

ଦ୍ରୁତ ବିକାଶ: ଶିଶୁ ଏବଂ ବାଲ୍ୟକାଳର ସମୟଗୁଡିକ ଦ୍ରୁତ ଶାରୀରିକ, ଜ୍ଞାନଗତ, ସାମାଜିକ ଏବଂ ଭାବପ୍ରବଣ ବିକାଶ ଦ୍ୱାରା ଚିହ୍ନିତ | ଏହି ସମୟ ମଧ୍ୟରେ, ପିଲାମାନେ ଗୁରୁତ୍ୱପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ କ skills ଶଳ ଏବଂ ଦକ୍ଷତା ହାସଲ କରନ୍ତି ଯାହା ପରବର୍ତ୍ତୀ ବିକାଶ ପାଇଁ ମୂଳଦୁଆ ସୃଷ୍ଟି କରେ | ଉଦାହରଣ ସ୍ୱରୂପ, ଶିଶୁମାନେ ସେମାନଙ୍କର ମୋଟର କ skills ଶଳ, ଭାଷା ଏବଂ ଜ୍ଞାନଗତ ଦକ୍ଷତା ବିକାଶ କରୁଥିବାବେଳେ ଛୋଟ ପିଲାମାନେ ସେମାନଙ୍କର ସାମାଜିକ ଦକ୍ଷତା, ଭାବପ୍ରବଣତା ଏବଂ ଆତ୍ମ-ଧାରଣା ବିକାଶ କରନ୍ତି |

ମସ୍ତିଷ୍କର ବିକାଶ ପାଇଁ ଗୁରୁତ୍ period ପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ସମୟ: ଶିଶୁ ଏବଂ ବାଲ୍ୟକାଳର ଅବଧି ମସ୍ତିଷ୍କ ବିକାଶ ପାଇଁ ଏକ ଗୁରୁତ୍ୱପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ସମୟ | ଏହି ସମୟ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ମସ୍ତିଷ୍କ ମହତ୍ growth ପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ଅଭିବୃଦ୍ଧି ଏବଂ ପୁନ w ନିର୍ମାଣର ସମ୍ମୁଖୀନ ହୁଏ, ଏବଂ ଏହି ସମୟର ଅଭିଜ୍ଞତା ମସ୍ତିଷ୍କର ବିକାଶ ଏବଂ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକଳାପ ଉପରେ ଦୀର୍ଘମିଆଦି ପ୍ରଭାବ ପକାଇପାରେ | ସକରାତ୍ମକ ଅଭିଜ୍ଞତା, ଯେପରିକି ପୋଷଣ ଏବଂ ପ୍ରତିକ୍ରିୟାଶୀଳ ଯତ୍ନ ନେବା, ସୁସ୍ଥ ମସ୍ତିଷ୍କର ବିକାଶକୁ ପ୍ରୋତ୍ସାହନ ଦେଇପାରେ, ଯେତେବେଳେ ଅବହେଳା କିମ୍ବା ଅପବ୍ୟବହାର ଭଳି ନକାରାତ୍ମକ ଅନୁଭୂତି ମସ୍ତିଷ୍କର ବିକାଶରେ ବାଧା ସୃଷ୍ଟି କରିପାରେ ଏବଂ ପରବର୍ତ୍ତୀ ବିକାଶ ପାଇଁ ନକାରାତ୍ମକ ପରିଣାମ ଦେଇପାରେ |

ଦୀର୍ଘକାଳୀନ ଫଳାଫଳ: ଶିଶୁ ଏବଂ ବାଲ୍ୟକାଳରେ ପ୍ରାପ୍ତ ହୋଇଥିବା ଅଭିଜ୍ଞତା ଏବଂ କ skills ଶଳ ପରବର୍ତ୍ତୀ ବିକାଶ ଏବଂ ଫଳାଫଳ ଉପରେ ଦୀର୍ଘମିଆଦି ପ୍ରଭାବ ପକାଇପାରେ | ଉଦାହରଣ ସ୍ୱରୂପ, ଅନୁସନ୍ଧାନରୁ ଜଣାପଡିଛି ଯେ ଉଚ୍ଚ-ଗୁଣାତ୍ମକ ପ୍ରାଥମିକ ପିଲାଦିନର ଶିକ୍ଷା ପରବର୍ତ୍ତୀ ଜୀବନରେ ଉନ୍ନତ ଏକାଡେମିକ୍ ସଫଳତା, ସାମାଜିକ ଦକ୍ଷତା ଏବଂ ମାନସିକ ସ୍ out ାସ୍ଥ୍ୟ ଫଳାଫଳକୁ ନେଇପାରେ | ସେହିଭଳି, ବାଲ୍ୟକାଳରେ ନକାରାତ୍ମକ ଅନୁଭୂତି ଯେପରିକି ଦାରିଦ୍ର, ଆଘାତ, କିମ୍ବା କ୍ରନିକ୍ ଚାପ, ପରବର୍ତ୍ତୀ ବିକାଶ ଏବଂ ଫଳାଫଳ ଉପରେ ନକାରାତ୍ମକ ପ୍ରଭାବ ପକାଇପାରେ |

ସଂକ୍ଷେପରେ, ଶିଶୁ ଏବଂ ବାଲ୍ୟକାଳର ଅବଧି ଗୁରୁତ୍ୱପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ କାରଣ ସେମାନେ ଦ୍ରୁତ ବିକାଶ, ମସ୍ତିଷ୍କର ବିକାଶ ଏବଂ ଦୀର୍ଘକାଳୀନ ଫଳାଫଳ ପାଇଁ ଏକ ଗୁରୁତ୍ୱପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ସମୟକୁ ଚିହ୍ନିତ କରନ୍ତି | ପିଲାଦିନର ବିକାଶରେ ବିନିଯୋଗ ଶିଶୁ, ପରିବାର ଏବଂ ସମ୍ପ୍ରଦାୟ ପାଇଁ ସକରାତ୍ମକ ଫଳାଫଳକୁ ପ୍ରୋତ୍ସାହନ ଦେଇପାରେ |


Development and Growth

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  • The term ‘development’ is used for changes in a person’s physical and behavioural traits that emerge orderly ways and last for a reasonable period of time.
  • The three main characteristics of these changes are that they are progressive, orderly and long lasting.
  • The term ‘progressive’ implies that these changes result in the acquisition of skills and abilities that are complex, finer and more efficient than the ones that preceded them.
  • To understand this, let us consider the advancement that takes place from crawling to walking and from babbling to taking.
  • Walking requires the child to move upright and balance one foot after the other. This requires greater coordination of the muscles and is more complex than crawling. Walking is also more useful as it frees the hands for other activities and increases the range of vision. Similarly, talking grows out of babbling and is certainly more complex and effective communicating with others.
  • The term ‘orderly’ suggests that there is an order in development.
  • Every development is built upon the previous one and cannot occur before it. Thus a child has to be able to crawl before she can walk and walk before she can run.
  • Similarly, the adult’s ability to handle complex situations is built upon the child’s capability of doing simpler tasks.
  • The ability to take decisions in adult life develops out of the childhood experiences of selecting which game to play or which book to read.
  • Development, therefore, is a process through which a person learns to function with greater ease and competence.
  • Development thus refers to both quantitative as well as qualitative changes.It changes not only in structure but also in function. Development may be defined as orderly and relatively enduring changes over time physical and neurological structure, thought processes and behaviour that every organism goes through from the beginning of its life end.


  • Growth’ refers to physical increase in the size of the body. Increase in weight, height and the size of internal organs is growth.
  • Growth refers to a quantitative change, that is, a change that can be measured. However, we do not merely grow in size. If that were so, a newborn baby would simply be a bigger baby at the age of 20 years.
  • Something else happens along with increase in size — there is a change in form and an increase in the complexity of body parts and their functioning, thinking abilities and social skills, among many others. In other words, we do not merely grow, but also develop.
  • Growth only one aspect of the larger process of development Development continues even when physical changes are not visible. Physical growth slows down considerably after adolescence but development does not.

Stages of Growth | Child Development | Goodfellow Occupational Therapy

Areas of Development

२.२.३ विकास के क्षेत्र
The various developments that take place during the life span of an individual can be classified thus: physical and motor development, social development, emotional development, cognitive development and language development.
Physical development
refers to the physical changes in the size, structure and proportion of the parts of the body that take place from the moment of conception.
Motor development
  • means the development of control over body movements.
  • This results in increasing coordination between various parts of the body. As a result of physical and motor development the child acquires many abilities.
  • These developments will bring about the change from an infant who at the time of birth is capable of only lying on her back to one who learns to roll over, hold her head, sit, walk, run and climb stairs.
  • The improving coordination between the eye and the hand movements will help her to eat food without smearing it on her face. Gradually she will learn to clothe herself, draw, skip, paint, ride a bicycle and type. As she grows she will refine the skills already acquired as well as develop new ones.
Language development
  • refers to those changes that make it possible for an infant, who in the early months uses crying for communication, to learn words and then sentences to converse fluently.
  • How the child learns to speak grammatically correct sentences is amazing! At first the child indicates her need for water through crying.
  • Then she learns to say “water.”A little later she says, “Mummy water” and finally she speaks a complete sentence, “Mummy, I want to drink water.” She will be about three years by this time.
Cognitive development
  • concerns the emergence of thinking capabilities in the individual.
  • We can see how the child’s thinking develops and changes from one age to the next.
  • The infant is not born with the reasoning and thinking abilities of adults.
  • In fact, the infant acts as if an object that is removed from her sight has ceased to exist.
  • Gradually she learns that objects and people are permanent and they exist even if she cannot see them.
  • Around five years of age she can understand concepts such as heavynand light, fast and slow, colours and sizes which she did not comprehend earlier.
  • Exploration of the surroundings and the questions regarding the ‘why’ and “how of things result in an increasing store of information.
  • In everyday use you would have often heard the term ‘intelligence’. How are the terms cognitive development and intelligence used in Child Development? Cognitive development, as you know, is the process of mental development from infancy to adulthood.
  • Cognition refers to the process of coming to know”, which is accomplished through the gathering and processing of information. It includes perceiving, learning, remembering, problem solving, and thinking about the world. Intelligence is a term difficult to define.
  • Nevertheless, according to a well known definition, it refers to the individual’s ability to “act purposefully, think rationally and deal effectively with the environment”.
Social development
  • refers to the development of thosc abilities that enable the individual to behave in accordance with the expectations of the socicly.
  • It is concerned with the child’s relationships with people and her ways of interaction with them.
  • The infant instinctively reaches out to the person who approaches her with love and affection.
  • Gradually she learns to recognize her mother and other caregivers and forms attachment to them.
  • Later she will form relationships with others.
  • As an infant her actions are centered around her own needs. Not before the children are seven or eight years of age will they be able to form stable relationships based on give and take.
  • This is also the time when children make friends and can even identify a best friend. When the child comes in contact with other children and adults she finds out how to behave in a manner that is acceptable to them.
  • She learnt the ways of eating, dressing, talking to elders and other things that are a part of her culture.
  • She will know that it is not right to snatch a toy, hit a child or play out of turn.
  • Slowly she learns to cooperate, to be helpful and generous.
  • The ability to understand another person’s point of view and concern for others will help her to form satisfying relationships with people during adolescence and adulthood.
Emotional development
  • refers to the emergence of emotions like anger, joy, delight, happiness, fear, anxiety and sorrow and the socially acceptable ways of expressing them.
  • As the child grows up and becomes aware of acceptable ways of behaviour, a variety of emotions also emerge.
  • As an infant, she expresses only discomfort and delight.
  • As she grows older, expressions of joy, happiness, fear, anger and disappointment appear.
  • She learns to express these emotions in a healthy manner. For example, initially the child bits out when angry.
  • Gradually she learns to control this and expresses anger in other ways.
  • is a word that we often use while describing a person, What is personality?
  • If you have observed children and adults over a period of time, you would have noticed this: every individual has a characteristic way of thinking, feeling, relating to people and reacting to situations which she displays in a wide variety of situations and settings.
  • Each child has a unique personality.
  • What the child thinks about herself is an important part of her personality since it determines how she interacts with others.
  • A child who feels confident and happy is likely  be affectionate with others.
  • Personality thus refers to a person’s characteristic ways of relating to others and distinctive patterns of thinking and feeling about oneself and other people.
  • It emerges out of the child’s experienccs and achievements in the areas of physical, motor, cognitive, language, social and emotional
बाल विकास के अध्ययन का महत्व
The discipline of Child Development helps us to understand children’s behaviour at different ages and to guide them. Let us see how this information is helpful to us.
2.3.1 Describing Universal Patterns of Development
2.3.1 विकास के सार्वभौमिक पैटर्न का वर्णन करना
  • there is a sequence in development.
  • Every child first communicates with sounds and gestures.
  • Then she learns words and uses them to express herself and finally uses complete and grammatically correct sentences.
  • There is a similar sequence in the emergence of abilities in all areas of development.
  • The sequence or pattern is common to all children, that is, each child passes through these sequences in the same order.
  • In any area of development, a specific ability emerges at a particular age in most children.
  • Thus, children usually learn to sit by six months of age, speak the first words around the first birthday and achieve the ability to think in abstract terms around 12 years of age.
  • There is, thus, a universal pattern in development.
  • Furthermore, no child can crawl before she can sit and no child can learn to relate to people before
    she learns to relate to the primary caregiver.
  • That is, in each area of development, the emergence of one ability is dependent on and follows the previous one.
विकास में एक क्रम है।
प्रत्येक बच्चा सबसे पहले ध्वनियों और इशारों से संवाद करता है।
फिर वह शब्दों को सीखती है और खुद को व्यक्त करने के लिए उनका उपयोग करती है और अंत में पूर्ण और व्याकरणिक रूप से सही वाक्यों का उपयोग करती है।
विकास के सभी क्षेत्रों में योग्यताओं के उद्भव का एक समान क्रम है।
अनुक्रम या पैटर्न सभी बच्चों के लिए समान है, अर्थात प्रत्येक बच्चा एक ही क्रम में इन अनुक्रमों से गुजरता है।
विकास के किसी भी क्षेत्र में, अधिकांश बच्चों में एक विशेष उम्र में एक विशिष्ट क्षमता उभरती है।
इस प्रकार, बच्चे आमतौर पर छह महीने की उम्र तक बैठना सीखते हैं, पहले जन्मदिन के आसपास पहले शब्द बोलते हैं और लगभग 12 साल की उम्र में अमूर्त शब्दों में सोचने की क्षमता हासिल करते हैं।
इस प्रकार, विकास में एक सार्वभौमिक पैटर्न है।
इसके अलावा, कोई भी बच्चा बैठने से पहले रेंग नहीं सकता और कोई भी बच्चा इससे पहले लोगों से संबंधित होना नहीं सीख सकता
वह प्राथमिक देखभाल करने वाले से संबंधित होना सीखती है।
अर्थात्, विकास के प्रत्येक क्षेत्र में, एक क्षमता का उदय पिछली क्षमता पर निर्भर करता है और उसका अनुसरण करता है।
2.3.2 Explaining Individual Differences in Development
२.३.२ विकास में व्यक्तिगत अंतर की व्याख्या करना
  • Though there is a pattern of development which is common to all individuals, no two children are alike.
  • They vary in their likes, dislikes, preferences, interests, skills and abilities and in the way they talk, look and behave.
  • Individual differences refer to variations in children’s personality, skills and attitudes. In a family one child may be very quiet and do all the tasks given to her while the other may always demand her own way.
  • Some children enjoy singing songs and others may not like music. Some children run very fast and some can jump higher than others.
  • You have just read that there are individual differences in the ages at which children acquire a particular skill.
  • The understanding of individual differences helps us realize that every child is different and should not be compared to others.
  • However, if a child is aggressive and usually fights with her friends, it is not enough to say, “That is the way she is.” An effort should be made to understand why she behaves that way.
  • The child may be aggressive just to get the attention of adults, the lack of which is giving her a sense of insecurity.
  • In such a case it is the attitude of the adults which is making the child behave as she does.

हालांकि विकास का एक पैटर्न है जो सभी व्यक्तियों के लिए समान है, कोई दो नहीं
बच्चे एक जैसे हैं।
वे अपनी पसंद, नापसंद, पसंद, रुचियों, कौशल और क्षमताओं में भिन्न होते हैं और जिस तरह से वे बात करते हैं, दिखते हैं और व्यवहार करते हैं।
व्यक्तिगत अंतर बच्चों के व्यक्तित्व, कौशल और दृष्टिकोण में भिन्नता को दर्शाता है। एक परिवार में एक बच्चा बहुत शांत हो सकता है और उसे दिए गए सभी कार्यों को कर सकता है जबकि दूसरा हमेशा अपने तरीके से मांग कर सकता है।
कुछ बच्चों को गीत गाना अच्छा लगता है और कुछ को संगीत पसंद नहीं आता। कुछ बच्चे बहुत तेज दौड़ते हैं और कुछ दूसरों की तुलना में ऊंची छलांग लगा सकते हैं।
आपने अभी पढ़ा है कि जिस उम्र में बच्चे एक विशेष कौशल हासिल करते हैं, उसमें व्यक्तिगत अंतर होते हैं।
व्यक्तिगत मतभेदों की समझ हमें यह महसूस करने में मदद करती है कि हर बच्चा अलग होता है और उसकी तुलना दूसरों से नहीं की जानी चाहिए।
हालांकि, अगर कोई बच्चा आक्रामक है और आमतौर पर अपने दोस्तों से लड़ता है, तो यह कहना काफी नहीं है, “वह ऐसी ही है।” यह समझने का प्रयास किया जाना चाहिए कि वह ऐसा व्यवहार क्यों करती है।
बच्चा केवल वयस्कों का ध्यान आकर्षित करने के लिए आक्रामक हो सकता है, जिसकी कमी उसे असुरक्षा की भावना दे रही है।
ऐसे में बड़ों का रवैया ही बच्चे को उसके जैसा व्यवहार करने के लिए मजबूर कर रहा है।

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1 / 8

Category: DECE1

In all religions children are regarded as tender, precious and valuable and

childhood as a time for learning.

2 / 8

Category: DECE1

List three ways in which the experiences of a child living in a city are different

from one who lives in a village. (5 mark)

3 / 8

Category: DECE1

List three changes that have come about in the lifestyle of the Hill Marias as a

result of contact with the outside world. 5 mark

4 / 8

Category: DECE1

The quality of time spent by the caregiver with the child is more important

than the quantity of time.

5 / 8

Category: DECE1

A child who lives in a family where there are a number of caregivers forms

emotional bonds with many.

6 / 8

Category: DECE1

The kind of tasks children do in the home to help the family (5 mark)

7 / 8

Category: DECE1

8 / 8

Category: DECE1

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