DECE2-Solution(ENGLISH)-IGNOU-DAY 7-ORSP

DAY 7

DECE2-Solution(ENGLISH)-IGNOU-DAY 7-ORSP

DECE2-Solution(ENGLISH)-IGNOU-DAY 7-ORSP

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DECE2-Solution(ENGLISH)-IGNOU-DAY 7-ORSP

Contents
Chapters
Chapter-1 Introduction to Nutrition and Health
Unit 1    The Concept of Nutrition
Unit 2    The Concept of Health
Unit 3     Indicators of Health
Chapter-2  Basic Concepts in Nutrition
Unit 4 The Macronutrients-I: Carbohydrates And Water
Unit-5 The Macronutrients-II: Proteins and Fats
Unit-6 The Micronutrients-1 : Vitamins
Unit-7 The Micronutrients-II: Minerals
Unit-8 Planning Balanced Diets
Chapter-3 Nutrition and Health Care during Pregnancy and Lactation
Unit-9   Meal Planning for Pregnant and Lactating Women
Unit-10 Health Care during Pregnancy
Unit-11  Health Care during Intranatal and Postnatal Periods
Chapter-4 Nutrition and Health Care during Infancy and Early Childhood
Unit-12 Nutrition during Infancy
Unit-13 Nutrition during Early Childhood
Unit-14 Health Care of the Child
Chapter-5 Nutrition Related Disorders in Early Childhood
Unit-15 Major Deficiency Diseases – 1: PEM and Xerophthalmia
Unit-16 Major Deficiency Diseases – II: Anaemia and lodine Deficiency Disorders
Unit-17Other Nutritional Disorders
Chapter-6 Nutrition and Health Programmes
Unit-18 Major Nutrition Programme
Unit-19 Major Health Programme
Unit-20 Assessment of Nutritional Status
Chapter-7 Common Childhood Illnesses, Their Prevention and Management -1
Unit-21 Caring for the Sick Child I
Unit-22 Some Disorders of the Alimentary System
Unit-23 Some Disorders of the Respiratory System
Unit-24 Some Infections of the Mouth and Throat
Unit-25 Some Problems of the Eyes
Chapter-8 Commom Childhood illness,Their Prevention And Management 
Unit-26 Common Diseases of the Skin
Unit-27 Common Problems of the Bars
Unit-28 Fevers
Unit-29 Lumps and Swellings
Unit-30 First Aid
DECE2-Solution(ENGLISH)-IGNOU-DAY 7-ORSP
Chapter-2
Basic Concepts in Nutrition

Q1. Describe the processes of digestion, absorption and utilization of food.(10 MARK)

Q2. Distinguish between available and non-available carbohydrates.(5 MARK)
Ans. Available Carbohydrates:
(1) Energy-giving Function: The chief function of carbohydrates is to furnish
energy for the working of the body. One gram of carbohydrate provides
approximately 4 kilocalories. (Kcal). Carbohydrate foods are widely
distributed in nature and are the cheapest sources of energy. They usually
provide 60-70 per cent of the total calories in our diets. The kilocalorie is the
unit of measurement of energy. One kilocalorie is the amount of heat
required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree
centigrade .
(2) Protein-sparing action: Though proteins can be broken down in the body to
meet the energy need, this is not their chief function. An insufficient
amount of carbohydrates in the diet will force the body to break down
proteins for releasing energy instead of using them for the body’s growth
and development
Carbohydrates, if taken in sufficient amounts to meet the energy needs of
the body, spare proteins for their important basic role in the body i.e.,
supporting growth and body-building. This particular act of sparing
proteins for other functions is termed as the protein-sparing action of
carbohydrates.
(3) Utilization of fats: Some amount of carbohydrate is needed for the proper
utilization of fat in the body. Presence of carbohydrates in the diet prevents
the body from breaking down too much fat for energy. In case of deficiency
of carbohydrates in the diet, more fat will broke down to meet the energy
requirements of the body. Why is this harmful? The-reason is that excessive
fat breakdown can result in accumulation of by-products of fat metabolism.
This accumulation causes a problem and can affect health.
Non-available Carbohydrates
(1) Satiety value: You know fiber cannot be broken down chemically in the
body. However, in the digestive tract some components of fiber absorb
water. They swell up and make the food residue bulky which gives a feeling
of fullness or satisfaction.
(2)Elimination: Fiber also helps in the easy elimination of unabsorbed food in
the form of stools or fasces from the body. Fiber present in stools holds
water, makes the softer and hence helps in their easy elimination. This
particular function of fiber makes it useful for preventing or relieving
constipation. Hence, it is a good idea to eat a diet that has generous amounts
of fiber sources like cereals, pulses and vegetables.
Fresh Super Food Concept With Fruit, Vegetables, Grains, Cereals,.. Stock Photo, Picture And Royalty Free Image. Image 103684827.
(3) Prevention of diseases like cancer, diabetes and heart disease: Some
research studies have indicated that fiber does play a role in prevention of
diseases like heart disease, diabetes and cancer of the large intestine.

 

 

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7 Thoughts to “DECE2-Solution(ENGLISH)-IGNOU-DAY 7-ORSP”

  1. […] Q2. Distinguish between available and non-available carbohydrates.(5 MARK) Q3. Describe the processes of digestion, absorption and utilization of carbohydrates in the body. Ans. Carbohydrates are widely distributed in plant foods. They are mainly present in these foods in the form of three types of compounds called sugars, starches and fiber. All these types of carbohydrates i.e. sugars, starches and fiber can also be classified as available and non-available carbohydrates. Carbohydrates like sugars and starches are digestible in the human digestive tract and hence can be made available to the body for its functioning. These carbohydrates are termed as available carbohydrates. Fiber refers to a number of indigestible carbohydrates like cellulose present in plant foods. cannot be digested in the human digestive tract and ate non-available carbohydrates. Digestion, absorption and utilization: Digestion of carbohydrates involves breakdown of starch and sugars like common table sugar in the diet to their simplest unit namely, glucose. Dietary fiber present in whole grains, vegetables and fruits cannot be digested by human beings because the stomach and intestines do not have the necessary enzymes to do this job. The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth itself. Saliva contains an enzyme which is capable of breaking cooked starch into smaller units. However, the time available for this enzyme to breakdown the starch in the mouth is too short to allow for any significant amount of conversion to take place. The longer one chews the food, the more the digestion of starch. There are no carbohydrate-digesting enzymes in the stomach. Thus the principal site of carbohydrate digestion is the small intestine. The major carbohydrate digesting enzyme present here is secreted by the pancreas. This enzyme is capable of acting on both raw and cooked starch and converts it into smaller units. The next phase of carbohydrate digestion takes place within the cells of the small intestine. Enzymes present in the small intestine act on sugars and partially digested starch and ultimately break them up into the simple basic units i.e. glucose, fructose and galactose. These simple sugar units are taken to various body tissues and cells through the bloodstream and are ultimately converted to glucose. Some amount of glucose remains in the blood as blood sugar and is drawn upon by the cells whenever needed. In the body cells glucose is mainly burnt to release energy. The extra glucose (which is not burnt to release energy) is converted to a substance called glycogen which is subsequently stored in the liver and muscles. Glycogen can be broken down to release glucose whenever needed. But only a limited amount of glucose can be stored in the body as glycogen. Once the limit of glycogen storage is exceeded, the remaining excess glucose is converted into fat and is stored in the body. Q4. List the food sources of proteins and fats. Ans. Food Source of Proteins: Food Sources: Here is the list of some of the rich sources of proteins. The list is vast and includes: milk, milk products (like curd, khoa, paneer), flesh foods (meat, fish, poultry), eggs, nuts and oilseeds (groundnuts, almond, cashew nut, walnut) and pulses (bengal gram, lentils, green gram, rajma, soybean). Among pulses, soybean is particularly rich in protein. If you look at the current prices of foods of animal origin like meat, fish, poultry, you will find that most of these are very costly. The only animal foods which are relatively less expensive (though expensive as compared to plant foods) are milk and eggs. As the protein in foods of animal origin are of good quality, one should try to include small amounts of these foods in the daily diet. Milk is the only animal food used by both vegetarians and non-vegetarians. It contains protein of very good quality. Hence, even a small amount of milk added to a basic Indian diet of dal-roti greatly enhances the protein quality of the whole diet. One should therefore try to include at least a small amount of milk in the daily diet. Non-vegetarians, who cannot afford meat fish and chicken can eat eggs which are cheaper and as nutritious as meat, fish or chicken. Let us now take a look at the foods of plant origin. Pulses, nuts and oilseeds are rich sources of proteins. But these foods are also very expensive. Pulses are the major source of protein in Indian diets. One can try to improve the quality of cereal proteins by combining them with pulses. As mentioned earlier, a small amount of milk, if it can be afforded, will further improve the quality of food protein. Food Source of Fats: Food Sources: Food sources of fats and oils include common fats and oils like ghee, vanaspati, mustard oil, groundnut oil, soya oil, coconut oil. They are almost 100 per cent fat. The presence of fat is also evident in other foodstuffs like milk and milk products (curd. paneer) nuts and oilseeds (almond, groundnut, coconut, mustard seeds), eggs and flesh foods. These are known as fat-rich foods. They have 8 to 50 per cent fat in them. You may be surprised to know that fat is present in very small quantities in almost dl foodstuffs. Even foods like cereals, pulses, fruits have fats in them in minute quantities. These foods contribute a substantial amount of fat to Indian diets by virtue of being consumed In large quantities. Q5. Describe the processes of digestion, absorption and utilization of proteins and fats in the body. Ans. Digestion, absorption and utilization: Dietary proteins chiefly consist of proteins made up of small and large chains of amino acids. Digestion of proteins involves the breakdown of these amino acid chains to their constituent amino acids. Since saliva does not contain any enzyme (which can bring about breakdown of proteins), protein digestion mainly occurs in the stomach and the small intestine. Pepsin, a photolytic enzyme, present in gastric juice breaks down proteins into smaller amino acid chains. But pepsin itself cannot complete the digestion of proteins. Partly broken down proteins from the stomach are released into the small intestine where further digestion takes place in two steps: i) Breakdown of partly digested proteins to smaller amino acid chains: There are several enzymes in the small intestine which act on partly digested proteins and convert them to even smaller amino acid chains; ii) breakdown of amino acid chains to amino acids. Finally other kinds of enzymes act on amino acid chains and convert them to their constituent amino acids. The metabolism of proteins is essentially the metabolism of amino acids as these are the end products of the process of digestion of proteins. After digestion, amino acids are carried by the blood to the liver. Here amino acids are used in three ways: a)some of them are used for building of blood proteins; b) some are retained in the liver and c) the rest enter the blood circulation as amino acids. Some of the amino acids remain in circulation and others are taken up by body tissues for protein synthesis whenever needed. It must be emphasized here that only proteins of good quality are maximally utilized by the body for synthesis of its own proteins. Digestion,Absorption and utilization: In the process of digestion fats are broken down to fatty acids. One of the two enzymes which aids in the digestion of fats is present in gastric juice and the other is poured into the small intestine from the pancreas. For enzyme action, fats need to be dispersed or mixed in water. You know fats are insoluble in water. A secretion from the liver called bile helps in fat digestion by breaking fat into small droplets. These fat droplets are then dispersed in the liquid digestive juice and are easily acted upon by enzymes. Since bile is not present in the stomach, the action of gastric lipase is not very significant. This is the reason why fats are chiefly digested in the small intestine where the pancreatic enzyme breaks them into glycerol and fatty acids aided by the action of bile. The end products of digestion i.e. glycerol and fatty acids present in the intestine move into the intestinal cells. The fatty acids cannot enter intestinal cells as such. Bile salts play an important role in fat absorption by dispersing the fatty acids into small tiny water-soluble units which can easily move into the intestinal cells. Fatty acids and glycerol then get transported from the intestinal cells to blood circulation. They do not travel directly into the bloodstream but first enter the network of vessels (present in the villi of the small intestine) called lymph vessels. Then fatty acids from the lymph vessels enter the heart and from there move into the blood. Blood then carries them either to the adipose tissues where they are stored as concentrated sources of energy or to cells where they are broken down to provide energy (in a similar fashion as glucose and amino acids). Q6. Differentiate between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins Ans. Fat-Soluble Vitamins: Vitamins A, D, E and K are known as the fat-soluble vitamins. These vitamins are, therefore, present in food dissolved in the fat they contain. An interesting fact about fat soluble vitamins is that after being used for specific functions, the excess amount of these vitamins is stored in the body, fat- soluble vitamins would remain dissolved in the fats and would be absorbed only after the fats are digested. Water-Soluble Vitamins: Let us now move on to the water soluble ones. Vitamin C and vitamins of the B-complex group are known as water soluble vitamins owing to their solubility in water. Unlike the fat-soluble vitamins, these vitamins cannot be stored in our body in considerable amounts. The excess amount of these vitamins is instead excreted from the body in the urine. QUIZ TIME 0% 0 votes, 0 avg 0 […]

  2. […] Q2. Distinguish between available and non-available carbohydrates.(5 MARK) Q3. Describe the processes of digestion, absorption and utilization of carbohydrates in the body. Q4. List the food sources of proteins and fats. Q5. Describe the processes of digestion, absorption and utilization of proteins and fats in the body. Q6. Differentiate between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins Q7. State the important functions of each vitamin in the body.(5 Mark) Ans. Vitamin A (1) Maintaining normal vision: Vitamin A plays an important role in maintaining normal vision. To understand this better, we must first be familiar with the structure of the eye. The retina has two kinds of cells – rods and cones. Both rods and cones are sensitive to changes in light but they react differently and perform different functions. While rods are sensitive to dim light, the cones respond to bright light. Let us take a closer look at the rods. The rods contain a pigment called rhodopsin. Rhodopsin is formed by the combination of a specific form of vitamin A with a protein. The amazing thing about rhodopsin is that it breaks down into its components when exposed to bright light. In the dark these components – vitamin A and protein – again combine to regenerate rhodopsin. (2) Supporting growth: Vitamin A is essential for the growth of the skeleton and soft tissues. The exact role of the vitamin in the growth of the body is still not understood. Research studies in this area have indicated that with the deficiency of vitamin A in the body, bones do not grow to their full length and the overall growth of the body is affected. (3) Protecting against disease: Vitamin A plays an important role in keeping epithelial tissues moist and healthy. Some examples of epithelial tissues are the skin, the lining of our eyes and the lining of organs like the intestine and lungs. Without vitamin A the epithelial tissue will become dry and cracks will appear in the skin or inner walls of the digestive tract or lungs. This makes it easy for the germs to enter and cause diseases like diarrhea, respiratory infections and eye infections. Various research studies have supported this and shown that vitamin A plays a beneficial role in preventing common illnesses in young children. When body levels of vitamin A are low, the chances are more that the young child will develop, infectious diseases. If these diseases are sufficiently severe they can even cause death. Vitamin D: You might have heard that vitamin D makes bones strong and healthy. This is absolutely correct. How does vitamin D help in this? Read on to find out. Minerals like calcium and phosphorus, when deposited in the bones, make them strong and hard. […]

  3. […] Q2. Distinguish between available and non-available carbohydrates.(5 MARK) Q3. Describe the processes of digestion, absorption and utilization of carbohydrates in the body. Q4. List the food sources of proteins and fats. Q5. Describe the processes of digestion, absorption and utilization of proteins and fats in the body. Q6. Differentiate between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins Q7. State the important functions of each vitamin in the body.(5 Mark) Q8. Describe the functions performed by the minerals in the body.(20 MARK) Q9. List the food sources of each of these minerals. Ans. Calcium and Phosphorus Food sources: Which foods provide good amounts of calcium? Milk and milk products like curd, khoa, channa cottage cheese) are excellent sources of calcium. Foods like fish (e.g. chingri, chela) especially dried fish and other sea foods (e.g. crab, shrimp) provide substantial quantities of calcium. Among the plant sources, ragi (a millet grown in South India) is particularly rich in calcium. Pulses like bengal gram, black gram, green gram, moth beans, rajmah, soyabean contribute substantial amounts of calcium. Green leafy vegetables (like amaranth leaves, colocasia leaves, fenugreek leaves, mustard leaves) also contain good amounts. Among nuts and oilseeds, gingelly (til) seed is particularly rich in calcium. […]

  4. […] Q2. Distinguish between available and non-available carbohydrates.(5 MARK) Q3. Describe the processes of digestion, absorption and utilization of carbohydrates in the body. Q4. List the food sources of proteins and fats. Q5. Describe the processes of digestion, absorption and utilization of proteins and fats in the body. Q6. Differentiate between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins Q7. State the important functions of each vitamin in the body.(5 Mark) प्रश्न 8। शरीर में खनिजों द्वारा किए गए कार्यों का वर्णन करें। (20 MARK) उत्तर:। कैल्शियम और फास्फोरस: कैल्शियम और फास्फोरस मूल रूप से शरीर में दो महत्वपूर्ण कार्य करते हैं-एक हड्डियों और दांतों के विकास से संबंधित और दूसरा शरीर की प्रक्रियाओं के नियमन के लिए। (1) हड्डियों और दांतों का विकास: कैल्शियम और फास्फोरस मुख्य रूप से हड्डियों और दांतों में मौजूद होते हैं। हड्डियों में कैल्शियम और फास्फोरस का अनुपात लगभग 2: 1 है हड्डी में कैल्शियम फॉस्फोरस, कुछ अन्य खनिजों और पानी के साथ मिलकर बनता है एक यौगिक बनाएँ। यह वह यौगिक है जो कठोरता और दृढ़ता प्रदान करता है हड्डियों। हड्डियों की तरह दांतों को भी उनके उचित विकास के लिए कैल्शियम की आवश्यकता होती है। यह है इस कारण से कि कैल्शियम की आवश्यकता बढ़ते वर्षों के दौरान सबसे अधिक है।(2) शरीर प्रक्रियाओं का विनियमन: […]

  5. […] Q2. Distinguish between available and non-available carbohydrates.(5 MARK) Q3. Describe the processes of digestion, absorption and utilization of carbohydrates in the body. Q4. List the food sources of proteins and fats. Q5. Describe the processes of digestion, absorption and utilization of proteins and fats in the body. Q6. Differentiate between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins Q7. State the important functions of each vitamin in the body.(5 Mark) Q8. Describe the functions performed by the minerals in the body.(20 MARK) प्रश्न 9। इनमें से प्रत्येक खनिज के खाद्य स्रोतों की सूची बनाएं। उत्तर:। कैल्शियम और फास्फोरस खाद्य स्रोत: कौन से खाद्य पदार्थ कैल्शियम की अच्छी मात्रा प्रदान करते हैं? दूध और दूध दही, चना पनीर आदि जैसे उत्पाद कैल्शियम के उत्कृष्ट स्रोत हैं। मछली जैसे खाद्य पदार्थ विशेष रूप से सूखे मछली और अन्य समुद्री खाद्य पदार्थ (जैसे केकड़े) कैल्शियम की पर्याप्त मात्रा प्रदान करते हैं। […]

  6. […] Q2. Distinguish between available and non-available carbohydrates.(5 MARK) Q3. Describe the processes of digestion, absorption and utilization of carbohydrates in the body. Q4. List the food sources of proteins and fats. Q5. Describe the processes of digestion, absorption and utilization of proteins and fats in the body. Q6. Differentiate between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins Q7. State the important functions of each vitamin in the body.(5 Mark) Q8. Describe the functions performed by the minerals in the body.(20 MARK) Ans. Calcium and Phosphorus: Calcium and phosphorus basically serve two important functions in the body-one relating to the development of bones and teeth and the other to the regulation of body processes. (1) Development of bones and teeth: […]

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